Educational, Intructional and School Psychology


SYMPOSIA


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PSYCHOLOGY AND DISABILITY.

Convenor: BAILEY, Jeff; University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

The early study and treatment of disabling conditions was conducted mainly by psychologists but, in recent years, there has been a great deal of focus on educational services for people with disabilities. There are many areas of disability in which psychologists should be interested and for which they should provide research and consultancy support. For example, social psychology can make a large contribution to the life circumstances of people with disabilities, in areas like self-regulation, goals, values and decisions. Health psychology is able to inform us of the stresses and hazards which confront people with disabilities, and the people who serve and assist those with disabilities. Examples are concerns about the stress and fitness levels of persons with disabilities and the stresses on families and care providers of living and working with people with disabllities.

This Symposium is designed to provide an opportunity for applied psychologists working in the area of disability research and intervention to share their research and perspectives. The Symposium on psychology and disability provides a balance to the other concerns of psychologists reflected in the agenda of the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology.


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MEDICATION PRACTICES AND EFFECTS FOR ADHD STUDENTS.

BAILEY, Jeffrey G.; University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

In the last decade, the prescription of psycho-stimulants medication, particularly Methylphenidate (Ritalin), as a treatment for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), has increased dramatically, there are some negative effects of using Ritalin, e;g., increased dysphoria and increases in nocturnal enuresis and insomnia. As well, the use of Ritalin is rarely well-ordered, nor the effect appropriately therapeutic. There is an urgent need to understand and evaluate the practices and effects of medication regimens for students with ADHD.

This paper reports on a study which investigated parent and professional practices in the medication of students with ADHD. The medication of thirty-five school students from one regional area of education reportedly having ADHD was scrutinised for conformity of the medication with the original prescription by the doctor, the period of time since initial prescription, any revisions, the actual practices of medication involving parents, teachers and school psychologists and the teaacher and parent reported effects of the medication on the attending and self-control behaviour of the students.


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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR DOWN SYNDROME CHILDREN.

PENNEY, R; Northern Territory University, Darwin, Australia.

The Transactional Intervention Program (TRIP) developed by Mahoney and Powell (1986) was compared to a traditional direct instruction program with Down Syndrome children. TRIP is based on the relationship between cognitive development and the quality of the interaction between the major caregiver and the child. Mahoney found that children who were functioning at the highest level of competence (languge age scores and mental development) were the children of mothers who were rated as high on child orientation/responsiveness and low on instructional orientation/control. The interence is that the developmental gains would be less for early intervention programmes using a traditional direct instruction approach relative to TRIP which teaches parents in the home how to improve their quality of interaction with their Down Syndrome child, utilising two instructional paradigms, turn-taking and interactional matches.

The results show that Down Syndrome children make substantial developmental gains when TRIP is offered as an early intervention in comparison to direct instruction. Moreover, the mothers in the TRIP programme under home tutoring become less direct, more sensitive to their children's state and interest and more responsive to their interactional style, while the mothers whose children were in the direct instruction programme were more controlling and directive.

Is it time for a paradigm shift?.


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MEASURING SELF-PERCEIVED STRESS IN PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES.

BRAMSTON, Paul; University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

Many people with intellectual disabilities face an extensive range of stressors because of changes in models of service delivery. They are increasingly being encouraged to adapt to new open employment opportunities and new independent living schemes. These changes provoke, or have the potential to provoke considerable stress. There is little literature on measuring stress in people with intellectual disabilities.

This research project involved the development of a scale to measure subjective stress in adults with mild intellectual disabilities. Items were derived from groups of people with disabilities. The instrument was administered to 221 adults with intellectual disabilities in Queensland, Australia. A factor analysis of the results demonstrated that the cluster of factors for this instrument had common properties with dimensions reported for stress scales in use with non-disabled adult populations. A well-validated, reliable scale is now available for professionals who wish to measure stress in people with intellectual disabilities.


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EVALUATING PROGRAMME EFFECTIVENESS WITH STUDENTS WITH BEHAVIOUR DISORDERS.

PRESLAND, I.; University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

There are many programes currently in use in schools which cater for students with behaviour disorders. Traditional approaches to programming have heen based on learning and behavioural theory. While these have often been proven to be effective, the major concern is the notion of external control. Cognitive approaches to dealing with students with behaviour disorder have shown conflicting results. The marriage of both approaches by using cognitive-behavioural approaches has been an important outcome of research and practice in the last decade.

This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a creative intervention programme designed to reduce oppositional and defiant behaviour in students in a special school in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The programme will be described and the major limitations and weaknesses, as determined by a comprehensive evaluation, will be highlighted. Recommendations for future programmes for students with behaviour disorders will be provided.


SY EDC 2

DEL BARRIO, Victoria; UNED, Madrid, Spain.


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USE OF CAQ AS INDICATIVE OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ADAPTATION.

FORNS SANTACANA, María; Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The relationship between personality and academic achievement has frequently been analyzed. In relation to the adolescent population, this topic is more frequently analyzed by means of classical personality tests such as 16PF, EPI, EPQ-J..., rather than specific tests analysing pathological behaviour.

The CAQ (Clinical Analysis Questionnaire) was developed to measure pathological traits. The simultaneous use of CAQ and 16PF provide evidence of normal and pathological traits. The Spanish version of CAQ is composed only of 12 clinical factors: Depression, (7 scales), Paranoia, Psychopathic deviation, Schizophrenia, Psychastenia and Psychological inadequacy.

There are few studies on this tests. Some analyze the factorial structure, and others study the correlation with MMPI, but we have not found any study carried out in the adolescent population evaluating the relationship between achievement and psychopatological traits.

Our purpose is:

a) to analyse the relationship between HSPQ (the adolescent version of 16PF) and CAQ.

b) to provide data about the use of CAQ in an academic setting (secondary school) and evaluate their utility.


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DIAGNOSTIC CONCORDANCE IN EMOTIONAL DISORDERS BETWEEN CLINICIAN AND THE STRUCTURED DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW DICA-R.

EZPELETA, L.; DE LA OSA, N.; JUDEZ, J.; DOMENECH, J. M. and LOSILLA, J. M.;

ABSTRACT ILEGIBLE


SY EDC (2) 3 ABSTRACT INCOMPLETO

SELF-ESTEEM AND THE NATURE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN DEVELOPING YOUTH.

NIEBRZYDOWSKI, Leon; University of Lodz, Poland.

Self-esteem has been viewed as a generalized attitude that the individual has toward himself (Coopersmith, 1967; Wyle, 1979; Kozielecki, 1981). This attitude entails several components; cognitive, emotional, and evaluative, and has a regulatory force. Even though it may not be among the most important factors that influence an individual's behavior, it is likely to play an essential role in some spheres of human activity.

The effect that self-esteem may have upon an individual's social functioning is expressed in the way that it defines the manner in which the individual performs some social functions within their immediate social group and their acceptance or rejection of other social groups. Self-esteem also determines the nature, type, and progress of the relationships formed between the individual and others. The effect depends upon the degree, or level, of self-esteem which is measured by the amount of discrepancy between the so-called "real-self", one's real concept of self, and the "idealized-self", a perfected and lofty characterization of self in the sense of what one would like to become.

A high degree of discrepancy between the "real-self" and the "idealized-self" reflects a low level of self-esteem, whereas a low degree of discrepancy between the two forms of self-awareness indicates high self-esteem (Lukaszewski, 1978). High self-esteem


SY EDC (2) 4

CHILDREN'S ANXIETY AND SYMPTOM FORMING.

FERRERO, Andrea; Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina.

The anxiety as an alarm sign -the one which precedes the repression process, causing it - is considered in children through the traumatic point of view. That is, those aspects referred to a great excitement state that became unpleasant. That excitement state is established at first, as based on the basic model of the baby's mind indefendation, and its biological correspondance. Then, it is referred to anxiety not as a real and external fact, but as the result of the irruption of instinct that, in spite of being pleasant itself, may cause unpleasure considering other requirements. This way may conduce children to a different way from the elaboration one: the way of symptom forming, and the consideration of childhood neurosis and symptomatic structures. As example, the importance of anxiety in the ethiology and development of children asthma is explained.


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CHILDREN'S ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION RELATIONSHIP.

DEL BARRIO, Victoria and MORENO, Carmen; Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.

MESTRE, Vicenta; FRÍAS, Dolores and PONS, Gemma; Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Recent studies are trying to equate anxiety and depression dimensions, showing at least the existence of common points between such emotions.

A study of anxiety and depression in children, aged 11-14 (N=634) has been carried out, in order to clarify the existing relationship between them.

Anxiety was evaluated with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children STAIC (Spielberger et al., 1973) and depression with the Children Depression Inventory CDI (Kovacs, 1985).

The global correlation between both variables was statisticaly significant (p= 0.001). Further item analysis offered a more detailed view of such relationship. Different patterns seem to have appeared for the various age group of children.

Some hypothesis are also presented in order to explain the results.


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AFFECTIVE PROCESSES AND CLASSROOM LEARNING.

Convener and chair: BOEKAERTS, Monique; Centre for the Study of Education and Instruction, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

In the last couple of years, research on affective variables has become an important new field of educational inquiry. It includes amongst other things research on the self-concept, current and future selves, emotion, mood and motivation, effort expenditure, stress and coping. Researchers in this area share the opinion that it is productive to focus simultaneously on general and task-specific affective variables and study their impact on students' intentions, their qualitative effort expenditure and their performance. They argue that in order to help students regulate their own learning it is not only important to teach youngsters to gain cognitive control. This form of control should be supplemented by motivation control, action control and emotion control. In order to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms of these various forms of control several longitudinal studies have been set up. In the symposium, empirical evidence from different age groups and subject areas will be presented to document what is meant by these different forms of control and how they influence classroom learning. In addition, the implications for instruction theories will be outlined.


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CONFIDENCE AND DOUBT AND CLASSROOM LEARNING.

BOEKAERTS, Monique; Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The study tested the proposition that confidence and doubt vis-a-vis concrete curricular tasks is personality in action in the classroom. In the first place, it was examined whether two trait variables, viz. fear of failure and the students' actions after failure (Kuhl's disengagement subscale) emerged in task-specific measures of confidence and doubt during task performance. In the second place, it was tested whether the influence of these two traits on task-specific negative cognitions and emotions accounted for changes in measures of objective and subjective competence, in reported effort expenditure, and time-ontask. Three hundred secondary school students completed the On-Line Motivation Questionnaire, thus reporting on their cognitions and emotions vis-a-vis actual curricular tasks, just before starting on the respective tasks and after completing them. They did this with respect to tasks related to different school subjects, on two occasions separated by 3 months. Consistent with previous research, negative cognitions about math tasks influenced GPA, but negative emotions did not. Disengagement affected both task-specific cognitions and emotions and through them self-assessment and GPA. The results for the other school subjects are not yet analyzed, but will be reported at the symposium.


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COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE PROCESSES IN UNIVERSITY STUDENT LEARNING.

VOLET, Simone; School of Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia.

This paper examines the significance of university students' general and task-specific cognitive and affective variables on the nature of their learning goals, and on their effort expenditure to achieve those goals. At university where teacher control is minimal, these variables are assumed to exert a strong influence on students' learning intentions and behaviour, and in turn on the quality of their leaming outcomes. Following Boekaerts and Kuhl it is argued that situation-specific cognitive processes involving subjective appraisals of learning tasks in relation to self cognitions, and affective processes to enact learning intentions and control action in academic learning settings, play a crucial mediating role between students' stable individual characteristics and their study behaviour on academic tasks. The identification of facilitative or inhibitive cognitive and affective processes is needed for a better understanding of individual differences in university student learning and for designing better teaching/learning environments.

Empirical support for the significance of these processes will be provided, using adapted versions of Boekaeqts' on-line motivation questionnaire, Kuhl action control scale and Volet & Chalmers' unfolding model for investigating qualitative differences in students' learning goals and perceptions of task requirements. In order to capture the dynamic and adaptive nature of student learning, these measures were administered at the beginning and at the end of a course of academic study.


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THE ROLE OF SELF-SCHEMAS IN SELF-REGULATED LEARNING.

PINTRICH, Paul R. and DE GROOT, Elisabeth; The University of Michigan, USA.

GARCIA, Teresa; The University of Texas, USA.

Recent research on self-regulated learning has focused on the role of motivational beliefs such as goals and self-efficacy and their links to students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, discussion of the "self" has been relatively absent in research on selfregulated learning. In this paper we discuss the role of students' self-schemas for themselves as learners and how these beliefs relate to the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Students can have both positive and negative self-schemas of themselves as learners. It is proposed that these affective valences for the self are assumed to drive self-regulated learning as students try to approach or enact positive self-schemas and avoid negative self-schemas.

Data were drawn from a correlational study of secondary school students (Mean age=12 years old) and their self-schemas and strategies. Self-report measures of schemas and strategies were taken at two points in the school year and achievement performance data were collected from school records. Results showed that positive self-schemas were more strongly related to the use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies as well as actual achievement in comparison to negative selfschemas. The results are discussed in terms of how the ratio or relative balance of positive to negative self-schemas can function to motivate self-regulated learning.


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EFFECTS OF INTEREST ON ATTENTION AND LEARNING FROM TEXT.

SCHIEFELE, Uli and WILD, Klaus-Peter; University Bundeswehr, Munich, Germany.

This study examined and further explored an unexpected finding reported by Shirey and Reynolds (1988). These authors have found a negative relation between interestingness of individual sentences and attention (reading time and secondary task reaction time), while interest was positively related to retention. Therefore, selective attention could not be confirmed as a mediator of the effect of interestingness on learning. The goal of our study was twofold: (1) we attempted to replicate Shirey and Reynolds' findings, and (2) we examined the relations among interestingness, attention, and learning by using coherent texts (instead of isolated sentences). The results of the replication study are in line with those of Shirey and Reynolds. The results from the second are not yet analyzed and will be reported at the conference.


SY EDC (3) 5

COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE.

EFKLIDES, Anastasia; PAPADAKI, Maria; PAPANTONIOU, Georgia and METALLIDOU, Yiota; University of Thessaloniky, Thessaloniky, Greece.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive factors -both general and domain-specific- and affective factors, such as anxiety and achievement motivation, on school mathematics. It also sought to determine the possible effect of cognitive ability, on the one hand, and level of task difficulty (as experienced by subjects), on the other, on the affect experienced during mathematical problem solving. 300 students of 7th, 8th, and 9th grade were tested with a battery of cognitive ability tasks, a battery of affective tasks, and a battery of school mathematics tasks. Subjects were also asked to rate the difficulty of each of the school mathematics tasks. Affective measures were obtained immediately before cognitive ability testing and immediately after the school mathematics testing. The results indicated strong effects of cognitive abilities on mathematics performance and only minor effects of affect. The interaction of task difficulty with affect was significant. The results are discussed in terms of general and on-line effects of cognition and affect on mathematics performance.


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FROM "PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR" TO COORDINATION OF COOPERATION AND COMPETITION IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS.

Co-Conveners: UCHÔA BRANCO, Ángela; University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

VALSINER, Jaan; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

It is widely known in psychology that social behavior, in its most fundamental aspects, is closely linked with issues of cooperation and competition. Nevertheless, it is necessary to

analyze that linkage in greater specificity, so as to make the results of basic understanding of mechanisms of coordination of competitive and cooperative aspects of conduct applicable for real-life applications in educational settings. This Symposium will bring together specialists who have addressed the fundamental issues of prosocial conduct and its development.


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COOPERATION AND COMPETITION: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES AND APPLICATIONS WITHIN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS.

UCHÔA BRANCO, Ángela; University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

The relevance of establishing social objectives for children's education comes together with the heed to identify the mechanisms through which the "hidden curriculum" of school settings acts upon child's development in interaction with peers and adults. Our purpose is to conceptualize the most referred forms of interdependence, namely cooperation and competition, within a co-constructivist theoretical framework which acknowledges both its structural and dynamic properties in terms of Individuals' goal orientations in specific cultural contexts. Data from a special experiment (Branco & Valsiner, 1993) will be presented in order to demonstrate the "cultural canalization" processes occurring within structured contexts as well as the functional dynamics of social interdependent patterns of interaction. From such standpoint, we will discuss the appropriateness of proposing the development of cooperatively goal-structured activities for educational purposes (Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Slavin, 1991), suggesting possible applications of research concerning these issues within preschool and school settlngs.


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PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: EMPATHY, ATTACHMENT AND PERSPECTIVE TAKING.

LÓPEZ, Felix; Universidad de Salamanca, Spain.

APODACA, Pedro; ETXEBARRIA, Itziar; EZEIZA, Amaia and ORTÍZ, María; Universidad del País Vasco, San Sebastián, Spain.

FUENTES, María; Universidad de Malaga, Spain.

The present investigation gives continuity to some projects already developed on this topic, involving subjects of different age groups. The study aimed at analysing the potential value of some cognitive and affective variables to draw predictions about prosocial behavior among preschool children. Seventy five children (36 boys and 39 girls, age range from 4 to 5 years years-old) participated in this research, distributed in four different groups coming from three urban sites. Children's prosocial behavior was assessed in a free play situation within school settings, on the basis of a system of observational categories, as well as by sociometric measurement and questionnaires used with teachers and parents. The variables here investigated were empathy, perspective taking, and attachment, each of them measured by different methods.


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AFFECTIVE AND MOTIVATIONAL BASES FOR CHILDREN'S HELPING BEHAVIOR.

TROMMSDORFF, Gisela and FRIEDLMEIER, Wolfgang; University of Konstanz, Germany.

Empathy can be seen as an emotional reaction which represents the affective basis for prosocial motivation. The actualization of this motive depends on the person's actual motivational state. One could assume that the interf erence between a prosocial motivation and a "egoistic" motivation may lead to an internal conflict. Theoretically, other reactions can be assumed. The previous "egoistic" motivation will inhibit prosocial motivation and even suppress the emotional reaction. When the empathic reaction is very strong, the egoistic motivation can be stopped and the prosocial motivation is dominant. In a quasi-natural setting 5-year-old children (n=25) were confronted with the misfortune of a playmate who reacted disappointed and sad. The experimental group was asked to finish a tower with wodden blocks within a given time-limit in order to get a reward. The control group was only asked to build a tower. The whole sequence was videotaped. Global ratings for the relevant variables were rated by analyzing these tapes. The experimental-group showed higher achievement motivation, but the relations between empathy and helping behaviors were not different from the results in the control-group. The dominant influence of the emotional reaction will be discussed on the basis of a developmental as well as a microgenetic perspective.


SY EDC 5

STATE OF THE ART OF INSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN HISPANIC COUNTRIES

Convenor: CASTAÑEDA, Sandra; UNAM, Mexico, Mexico.


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DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN NICARAGUA.

ARRIOLA MIRANDA, María Angelina; National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, Nicaragua.

This paper presents a descriptive and integrative revision of the development of psychology in Nicaragua, emphasizing instructional psychology and its areas that have been subject of investigation.

By means of documental investigation of more than 100 references, appeared in books, journals, monographs, as well as inedited papers in the educational area, the most outstanding aspects were identified. Its analysis permitted: a) to determine the dominant theoretical position at different moments of the development of psychology; b) the areas that received interest of researchers in psychology; c) the theoretical - practical gaps presented along the historical evolution and d) the perspectives for an immediate future in general.


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MEXICAN INSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

CASTAÑEDA, Sandra and LÓPEZ, Miguel; UNAM, Mexico.

Within a cognitive perspective, we identify the development of modern Instructional Psychology in Mexico, contrasting its advances in both theoretical and methodological aspects with international progress. We describe the formation of resources and outline its principal subjects and fields of work. Among them: the analysis of processes, structures, strategies and errors between novices and experts; the advances in knowledge on processes, structures and strategies underlying learning and teaching in different knowledge fields; the cognitive-instructional design of contents and materials, the construction of intervention instruments and techniques for the measurement and development of cognitive abilities, motivational learning components and finally the dynamic evaluation, instruction and investigation of psychological and instructional processes supported by computational and Artificial Intelligence tools.

The character of this revision, more than being exhaustive, is describing and integrating some of the most representative tendencies and developments in Mexico. We hope this context will serve the interested reader to become acquainted with those Mexican developments having a major tradition in the field and to situate his or her products, in the light of what's happening within the international community.


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THE RELATION BETWEEN INSTRUCTION AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN COLOMBIAN EDUCATION.

MONTEALEGRE, Rosalía; University of Moscow, National University of Colombia, Colombia.

This paper analyzes the relation between instruction and cognitive development in Colombian education: first, in the kindergarten named "Grade Zero": its conceptual and pedagogical frame and second, in the primary and secondary school: general foundations, methodological outlines and evaluation criteria. From a theoretical point of view I analyze within this relation between instruction and cognitive development: a) the intellectual activity of the subject to propose by these the interiorization of actions and cognitive operations, as well as instruments, social signs and symbols in general; b) the necessity of starting from what's materialized towards internal operations, a process in which molding occurs of simple perception of objects towards their conceptualization by means of cognitive signs and symbols; c) the conscientization of actions and operations that realizes the human being during his process of conceptual assimilation of information.


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INSTRUCTIONAL VS OBSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: UNDOING WRONGDOINGS WITH NEW REMEDIES.

ORANTES, Alfonso; Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.

Efforts are described to counteract some prevailing conventions in present educational practices reflecting applications of a psychology that lacks proper descriptive and prescriptive theoties to solve classroom everyday problems. Three wrongdoings are considered:

1. Teacher latrogenic actions. How to prevent those who are able to from solving mathematical problems. Results from the studies of task enviroment of mathematical story problem such as wording and correspondance among semantic, syntactic and operational levels in arithmetic and algebra suggest the need to counteract some aspects of prevailing teaching of mathematics subculture.

2. Pedagogy of Confusion. How to enhance teachers confusion by providing incomplete or unsuitable models of the instructional and learning processes for his everyday practices, such as emphasizing the role of instructional objectives and minimizing the remain components usually overlooked. Preactical nefarius consequences are pointed out.

3. Contrary approaches: Consultancy and Psychoevaluative. The approach developed within the framework of Instructional Psychology, which integrates the contribution of Cognitive Psychology -for describing contant- and Organizational Development -for directing processes- is compared with conventional approaches that stress psychoevaluative approachesl putting the accent in individual problems. Some examples are presented of consultancies which emphasize primary prevention and global actions contrary to tertiary prevention and individually oriented prevailing approaches.


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INTEGRAL MODEL FOR UNIVERSITY EVALUATION.

LÓPEZ, M. and CASTAÑEDA, S.; National Autonomus University of Mexico, Mexico.

The model incorporates quantitative and qualitative developments in evaluation and was conceived to guide the construction of instruments as well as the elaboration of test-items that provide solid methodological support for the evaluation of students who aspire studying in university and senior high school. Through its objectives, the model is oriented towards the design of "performance" exams, since it wants to evaluate what has been learned. At the same time it tries to identify how the candidate's performance will be, when studying the courses he inscribes for at the beginning of the study cycle.

The model is build up of four components: cognitive processes, cognitive activities, specific domain contents and operation levels, and emphasizes especially the relations and interactions among them. So, instead of centering on any of the isolated components, attention should be paid to the dynamic forms they assume. The evaluation is carried out in terms of grades of efficiency with which general cognitive functions are realized (thinking, reasoning, recalling) expressed in concrete operations (ordering, resolving, classifying, etc.) that can or cannot be appropiate to a particular content and also depend on the level of evaluation. In validating the model five samples of 20,000 students were used. Results have been very satisfactory.


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INNOVATIONS IN RESEARCH, PRACTICE AND ROLES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS.

Convener: CULBERTSON, Frances M.; ABPP,


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EDUCATING LEARNING-DISABLED STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY SETTINGS.

CULBERTSON, Frances M.; ABPP,

College admissions and education of students with handicapping conditions, diagnosed as learningdisabled students (LD) in high school, is a fairly recent occurrence on college and university campuses in the United States. Fifteen years ago, achievement of a university degree would have been impossible for most students with this type of handicapping condition. In the last fifteen years, significant changes have occurred and now these students have the opportunity, on a variety of university campuses to fulfill their intellectual and educational goals.

As a result of the passage of Public Law 93-112 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and in particular, the Rehabilitation Act Regulations, Section 504, Subpart E (34 C.F.R., part 104), students were guaranteed the right not to encounter discrimination in admissions solely based on their handicaps; nor, would discrimination occur regarding the opportunity to apply and receive federal funds for education.

This presentation will discuss the transitioning of students for college and university education; concerns and questions of university administrators and faculty, and roles open to psychologists particularly school psychologists, to assist and facilitate these students in their educational pursuits.


SY EDC (6) 2

THE EFECTIVENESS OF MEDIATIONAL AND COLLECTIVE INTERVENTION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS IN SCHOOL SETTINGS.

HERNÁNDEZ HERNÁNDEZ, Pedro;

What do I have to do?. Which is my role?. Which are my priorities?... Many psychologists and psychopedagogic advisers that work in spanish schools show their worry in this Way.

There are different reasons that explain the current change of the psychologist role in the school, such as the emphasis on the contextual factors, the value of prevention, the need of integrating the psychologist in the school planning and the trend towards the unification of the school psychologist and pedagogic adviser into the same role.

Traditionally, according to the medical and psychometric model, the school psychologist has been working in the school, but out of the school world. He has focused his attention on individual pupils using tests of intelligence and personality or assisting them in case of learning difficulties, maladjustments or vocational guidance.

At the moment, the psychologist ia asked to do the following tasks:

1. Educational institution intervention, advising on design and evaluation, and fostering educative innovation and a warm climate.

2. Group intervention applying collective programs for intelectual enrichment and social and personal development.

3. Mediational intevention through teachers and parents.

4. Individual intervention, in exceptional cases. So many tasks can become imposible, but not if certain conditions, which we will discuss, are taken into account.


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MEASURING RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE SCHOOL AND BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME.

MAITAL, Sharone L.; Department of Education, University of Haifa, Israel.

Both families and schools are systems involved in socialization and education. This is especially true for young children. Recent approaches to school intervention have emphasized the importance of an ecological approach to the interactions between home and school. There is particular concern for the continuity of home and school settings. Ecologically-oriented system approaches to the interactions between home and school emphasize the need for process measures that reflect the reciprocal quality of the interactions within and between the key settings in which children participate. The relationship processes may be operationalized in terms of the sense of cohesion and adaptability among members comprising the child's educational system. This paper considers the use of a questionnaire based on Olson's circumplex model of family systems (Olson, 1986) as a means of assessing reciprocal relations within schools and between school and home. The use of the assessment of relationship processes is shown with respect to school consultation and the evaluation of the program designed to foster closer reciprocal relations between parents and preschool teachers.


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COLLABORATIVE PRACTICES AND APPLIED RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN REMOTE CANADIAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS; NEW ROLES FOR SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS.

SAKLOFSKE, D. H. and SCHWEAN, V. A.;

Canada is a vast but sparsely populated country, especially in the northern regions. Schools are often remote and great distances apart. The services of school psychologists and other specialized educational personnel are much less frequent in these areas. Also the population of such areas as Northern Saskatchewan are predominantly Aboriginal. This environment poses unique social, economic, cultural, and linguistic demands that require a very different approach to the service delivery provided by school psychologists. This presentation will describe the use of a collaborative consultation model that expands the traditional role of the school psychologist. The goals of service delivery classified as primary, secondary and tertiary will be examined in relation to direct and indirect services to students, teachers, administrators, and the entire school or school system. Since there is frequently little available research information on the existing needs of children and schools to guide educational practices, a description of a major needs study for a complete Aboriginal school system will also be presented.


SY EDC (6) 5

FATHERS' WORK RELOCATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN'S EMOTIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTIONING.

SUKEMUNE, Seisoh; Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan.

As progress of industry and economics over the last few decades in contemporary Japan has led to many family problems to be made up for the loss. One of the biggest problems is concerned with the effects of TANSHINFUNIN (father absence caused by his work relocation without accompanying his family) on father's daily life and work morale, mother's daily life and her home making, husband and wife relationship, and some others. One more important psychological question is concerned with the effects of father's TANSHINFUNIN on school-aged children's emotional-motivational functioning, and on family bonding among family members. The present author and his associates administered a survey to tanshinfuniners, tanshinfuniners' wives, and their school-aged children, and to TAIDOFUNINERS (work relocation with accompanying their family) and their wives and children, as controls. The present speaker will present data and discuss the above questions.


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AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION AND SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: POLICY AND ADVOCACY IN THE SCHOOLS.

TALLEY, Ronda C.; American Psychological Association, Washington, USA.

In 1989, the American Psychological Association established a program in its Practice Directorate to address the pressing issues facing psychological practice and educational reform in America's schools. The mission for the program states: "The Psychology in the Schools Program is the focal point within the Association where issues pertaining to the practice of psychology in school settings are addressed. Furthermore, since the majority of psychological practice in schools is conducted by school psychologists, this group represents a key constituency for the program. In addition, the issues faced by school psychologists who practice in hospitals, mental health centers, agencies, universities, or other settings, including private practice, are other areas of concentration. The program engages in political and professional advocacy and policy development in response to both guild and professional practice issues that face practicing psychologists who seek to provide quality services to children, youth, families, school and agency staff, and systems." This presentation will focus on the work being done on school issues by the American Psychological Association, with special emphasis on new initiatives being proposed for health promotion and mental health service delivery in American schools.


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COGNITIVE EDUCATION: INDIVIDUALS WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

Convener: DAS, J. P.; University of Alberta, Canada.

Both theoretical and practical aspects of learning difficulties are examined in the symposium. LD is understood in terms of basic cognitive processes in papers by Kirby and Schofield. Mulcahy presents a metacognitive approach - a program of instruction for children with learning difficulties. Carlson presents further evidence in support of a remediation program based on the theory that LD children have basic difficulties in successive procesing and planning; he also discusses the four papers.

All participants reflect a change in the approach to LD from a behaviouristic to a cognitive Position.


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THE PREP REMEDIATION PROGRAM.

DAS, J. P.; University of Alberta, Canada.

CARLSON, J.; University of California, Riverside, USA.

PREP was used as a program for reading enhancement, improving reading in underachieving (Chapter 1) children in a Southern California school, In that study we gave PREP for four months to 22 children from the Chapter 1 group, comparing them with other children who had similar reading-decoding problems. Not only did we find improvement in pre- post- performance following training in the treated group, but also significant interaction effects. That is, the treated children who received remediation gained almost one year in word-decoding, significantly more than the other reading-disabled children who were receiving the resource room teaching. We now have demonstrated similar gains in reading for children in a subsequent study.


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SUCCESSIVE PROCESSING AND READING ACHIEVEMENT.

KIRBY, J. B.; Queen's University, Canada.

Recent research has established the importance of successive processing in the development of skilled reading. This paper will consider the nature of successive processing, as described within the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Processing) theory, and review recent studies which relate successive processing to reading. It will be shown that a) successive processing is an important but often overlooked, aspect of cognition and intelligence; b) it is a strong predictor of reading achievement; c) it is frequently weak in children with reading disabilities; and d) it can be improved through training, with consequential improvements in reading skill. The relationship between successive processing and phonological processing will be explored, with the intention of designing remedial instruction that targets both of these areas of cognition.


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A DYNAMIC APPROACH TO METACOGNITIVE AND COGNITIVE INSTRUCTION.

MULCAHY, R. F.; University of Alberta, Canada.

This paper will present the results of a longitudinal study of metacognitive and cognitive strategies instructional approach for teachers in mainstream classrooms. SPELT (Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking) is a metacognitive instructional approach to enhance learners/ thinkers. The results of a three-year study of this approach versus traditional classroom instruction at both elementary and junior high school level strongly supported the metacognitive approach. Teachers, parents, and administrators' perception of this approach was exceedingly positive as was students' improvement. This paper briefly describes the instructional approach along with the underlying theoretical framework and results of empirical studies conducted with respect to this approach over the pasl seven years.


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COGNITIVE PROCESSING ACROSS ABILITY GROUPS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

SCHOFIELD, N. J.; University of Newcastle, NSWJ, Australia.

While there is considerable information about the identification and learning needs of gifted children, there is little research into their unique cognitive functions. This study was a four year follow-up of 166 of an original 321 gifted and normal children. The study examined the stability of a series of processing measures across that time and the specific cognitive differences between gifted (IQ>125), highaverage (IQ105-125) and low average (IQ<105) groups. A clear factor structure for the simultaneous, successive and planning variables again emerged, suggesting that these are stable across time. Important differences in patterns of performance emerged between ability groups. While initially, there was a performance plateau for the gifted and high average groups for most measures apart from simultaneous processing and high level planning, this plateau effect was largely reversed in the four year follow up. There were now no significant differences between the low average and high average groups for all the planning measures (both simple and complex) and successive processing, whereas the gifted group was significantly better than the other groups on these measures. A new plateau effect emerged for the simultareous processing factor, suggesting a ceiling effect, possibly associated with overall cognitive ability. These results would suggest that planning is not evenly distributed across the IQ range and that those who are genuinely academically gifted may function at a qualitatively and quantitatively different level from all others. Educational implications for all aroups are considered.?


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ASPECTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S COGNITIONS IN WHOLE CLASSROOM LEARNING CONTEXTS.

Convener and Chair: ELLIOT, Alison; Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney Nepean, Kingswood, Australia.

This symposium presents findings from recent studies that have explored processes involved in young children's enculturation to classroom learning and ways in which cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies can be facilitated within whole classroom settings.

Major foci of the individual presentations are on the role of classroom contexts in shaping children's definitions of and participation in learning, children's perceptions of themselves as learners and thinkers, and approaches to facilitating cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies within the sociocultural context of whole classroom settings. Central to each presentation is an emphasis on the impact of cultural conventions and social and/or technological learning "partners" on cognitive development.


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PERCEPTION AND FACILITATION OF SELF-REGULATORY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN PRESCHOOL CLASSROOMS.

ELLIOT, Alison; University of Western Sydney Nepean, Australia.

The need for young children and less skilled leamers to manage their own learning by planning, evaluating, and regulating their performance on academic tasks has been stressed in a number of contexts. This presentation reports on efforts to encourage young children's awareness and use of self-regulatory strategies in mathematical problem-solving in naturalistic classroom contexts. Results of fine-grained examinations of children's mathematical problem-solving focusing on teacher-child, child-child, and child-computer interactivity are discussed and the extent to which learners employed self-regulatory strategies as they engaged in mathematical thinking highlighted.


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RESEARCHING THE CLASSROOM AS A SYSTEM.

CRAWFORD, Kathryn; Faculty of Education, University of Sydney, Australia.

Vygotskian approaches to the social formation of the mind provide a paradigm for investigations in which the classroom can be viewed as a system operating within, and interacting with, the wider cultural context. Vygotsky's inclusive, interactive and functional view of human activity in context, and the more recent work of his compatriots provide a strong explanatory paradigm as a basis for investigations of learning activity in modern educational settings.

The approach stresses the connections between people in any setting, the flow of activity as a communal task (ie. a lesson), and the distribution of activity among the participants. Vygotskian theory suggests that the meanings attributed by each individual to elements in the system and the relationships between them and their perceptions of needs, together with the goals and expectations of the social setting shape cognitive processes and cognitive development.

The use of this paradigm to investigate the distribution and flow of cognitive activity between teacher and students and between students working in a group will be discussed in this presentation. The ways in which the presence of new technological applications may change the distribution of activities and their quality will also be discussed.


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IDENTIFYING YOUNG GIFTED CHILDREN IN CLASSROOM CONTEXTS.

HALL, Janice M.; Institute of Early Childhood Studies, Macquarie University, Australia.

The identification of young gifted and talented children is problematic. The focus of this presentation will be on findings from an Australian study that investigated processes involved in identifying children with gifts and talents and making appropriate decisions for their early learning. Specifically, parents' concerns about identification issues, choices for formal schooling and relationships in educational contexts will be highlighted. The impact of these processes and concerns on the young child, within the home and school setting will be discussed.


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INCREASING CHILDREN'S METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF LEARNING AND TEST STRATEGIES.

BORNHOLT, Laurel; University of Sydney, Australia.

Children's cognitive or intellectual level may be understood as how they operate on academic tasks. Their actual task performances and how they perceive their performances on these tasks (academic self concept) represent an interaction of dispositional features of the person and the situational features of the task in the social context. These aspects of children's academic self concept are relations among their perceptions of performance, talent, effort and task difficulty. It is argued that at some level children's knowledge about features of the tasks that we set them contributes to how well they perform on the tasks. In the study reported here a class of children (N=30) completed reading comprehension tasks and took part in guided group discussions in a naturalistic setting. The ways children talked to each other and the role of the teacher-researcher as facilitator were key elements in the intervention. Increased awareness of the task situation sensitized children to the notion of task difficulty. A positive influence on task outcomes was notably for those children with less effective task strategies and poor task performance. This alerts us about the extent to which task awareness as cultural knowledge is assumed when we set academic tasks at school. The research also addresses the role of the social context. We need to ask whether task difficulty is seen by children as informative about the task or normative in terms of social comparisons.


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PRESCHOOLERS' EXPLORATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLOGY.

CARR, Margaret; School of Education, University of Waikato, New Zealand.

Purposeful activity by four year olds in mathematics and technology is described and analysed to outline how the sociocultural context is interwoven with children's developing learning strategies and learning dispositions. Features of the sociocultural context of significance are the social climate (including adults' perceptions of the curriculum) and the purposes and problems available to the children. It is argued that connections between these two features (social climate and the purposes/problems) in the preschool classroom with those features in the home environment, and with children's perceptions of purpose and curriculum, can facilitate optimum opportunities to develop learning strategies and dispositions that will be useful in later years.


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FACILITATING WRITING METACOGNITIONS IN A CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF THE COMPUTERIZED WRITING PARTNER.

HICKS, Sandy Jean; School of Education, University of Rhode Island, USA.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the WritingPartner, a computerized writing tool designed to provide expert-like metacognitive guidance for novice writers in the form of procedural facilitation, on a limited number of cognitive, psychological, and social elements within a classroom learning environment. Data consisting of writing samples, questionnaires, interviews and observations were examined in order to determine the differences, while writing in partnership with the tool and in the absence of the tool, between three groups: a word processing group, a Writing Partner group and a Writing Partner group with an inducement for mindfulness. It was hypothesized that students who wrote with the Writing Partner would have more positive effects and that students who wrote with the Writing Partner with the inducement for mindfulness would have greater positve effects. The results of this study indicated that the induced mindfulness condition was essential for the effective use of the Writing Partner computer tool. Students in the induced mindfulness condition wrote better in the absence of the tool, had a qualitatively different learning environment and reported using the features of the Writing Partner program more consistently.


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DOMAIN SPECIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO STIMULATE CONCEPTUAL CHANGE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.

Conveners: CARRETERO, M.; Autonoma University, Madrid.

DE CORTE, E.; University of Leuven, Belgium.

Research carried out during the past years in different content domains has produced accumulating results that help to clarify and unravel the processes of cognitive development and the instructional interventions that stimulate these processes. The aim of the present symposium is to review evidence obtained in a variety of major subject-matters fields and to focus thereby on the following questions:

1. What are the main determinants of conceptual change in each domain?.

2. There are some similarities to this respect accross domains?.

3. How is the relationship conceived between acquiring domain-specific knowledge and more general skills?.

4. Which are the dominant theoretical ideas and the available empirical findings concerning efficient intervention strategies for stimulating cognitive development and conceptual change?.

5. Which are the major instructional issues to be addressed in future research?.


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REASONING IN DIFFERENT SUBJECT MATTER DOMAINS.

VOSS, J.; LRDC, University of Pittsburgh, USA.

Research on how people reason in subject matter domains has been carried out primarily in mathematics, physics, and, more recently, history. In this paper the argument is made that there is a convergence of evidence indicating that in each domain similar factors are involved in good reasoning.

These include an understanding of the nature of the domain, metacognitive awareness, specification of goals, and the ability to generate and evaluate arguments within the respective domains. Generation also leads to better learning in the domain. On the other hand, the nature of the argument contents varies with the domain, thereby making domain knowledge critical. The above position will be supported by evidence from different domains.


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DOES MATHEMATICS REQUIRE ITS OWN THEORY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION?: RATIO AS AN INSTANCE OF RELATIONAL THINKING AND PERSPECTIVE TAKING.

CARRAHER, David; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco & TERC,

Specialist in mathematics education can make an easy case for the uniqueness, the domain-specific nature of mathematical knowledge; after all, mathematics apparently shares llttle content with subjects such as history or botany. Developmental psychologist, on the other hand, may persuasively argue that students' knowledge must be constructed upon their former knowledge, regardless of the content area; in this sense different disciplines have more in common than one might imagine.

But this level of discussion is unlikely to lead to illuminating insights rgarding learning and instruction. We really need a variety ot middle-ground concepts, ideas, and considerations that cut across diverse fields. Furthermore these conceptual tools ought to incentivate reflection upon learners' active representations of knowledge.

Two possible candidates for cross-disciplinary communication "relational thinking" and "perspective taking". The concept of "ratio" is analyzed in terms of new, yet familiar, relations students must take into account in analyzing diverse situations. Thinking in terms of ratio and proportion entails, taking on new perspectives regarding the nature of numbers and functions such an analysis promises to broaden the concept, thereby facilitating its usefulness in other fields, such as economics. Although links to history and fairly unquantified fields will be harder to find, ratio-like relations can be more easily uncovered (a "relatively heavy burden for the population", "an energy efficient organism") once the concept is broadened beyond its traditionally narrow meaning.

One consequence of enriching concepts, through viewing them as instances of relational thinking and perspsctive taking, is to remove them form low-level task situations (eg. simplifying a fraction) and elevating them to the role of general cognitive organizers.


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CONCEPTUAL CHANGE IN CHEMISTRY: EFFECTS OF THE CONTEXT

POZO, Juan Ignacio; SANZ, Ángeles and GÓMEZ, Miguel Ángel; Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Some models of conceptual change assume that science learning requires the replacement of the old system of spontaneous or personal ideas (also called misconceptions) by a new system of scientific concepts.

Thus, a student learning Chemistry should give up his/her common-sense interpretations (based on macroscopic representations) and change them for the scientific models of the chemical structure of matter (based on microscopic representations). However, an alternative model of conceptual change would accept that after science learning these two kinds of representation could coexist and be used in a different way by the subject, according to the

context. However, we are still lacking ofempirical support for either of these kinds of conceptual change (Chi, 1992). Within a wider study on Chemistry learning (Pozo, Gómez, Sanz, 1993), several groups of adolescents of different ages (from 12 to 17 years old)and with different level of scientific instruction, and two groups of university students,undergraduates in Chemistry and Psychology respectively, were presented with three paper and pencil tasks involving several qualitative Chemistry problems. The chemical situation was the same in the three tasks, but the format or context was different in each task. According to our results, when the task requires spontaneous answers very few subjects use microscopic representations based on the particulate structure of matter. Spontaneous interpretations are mostly

macroscopic for all the subjects,, including Chemistry students. However, microscopic representations increase significantly when the context task makes reference to the chemical nature of the situations. However, in these contexts, microscopic representations do not exceed in any group, including Chemistry students, 50% of the answers. Although there are some differences among groups in their representations, subjects in every group used both macroscopic and microscopic representations according to the task requirements. At least in Chemistry learning, conceptual change does not mean replacement, but rather different contextual activation of alternative representations.


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CAUSAL THEORIES IN HISTORY AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION

CARRETERO, Mario; LOPEZ MANJON, Asunción and JACOTT, Lilliana; Autonomous Univerisity of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

This paper deals with the use of causal theories and reasoning processes in History. Our theoretical framework comes from two sources. From an historical approach, a number of ideas about historical causality has been taken into account (e.g. Collingwood, Dray, Carr, von Wright, etc). From a cognitive approach there has been until now very scarce research about this topic. Anyway, in both approaches there an essential question to be answered. This is to say to what extent concrete and personalistic factors (.i.e. specific leaders and influential persons in general) play a role in causal explanations in history. Three real historical explanations situations have been presented to the subjects (adolescents and adults, experts and novices): Discovery of America, French Revolution and Second World War). Their task consisted of rating six possible causes of each historical event. In general, adolescents and adult novices in History considered personalistic causes (i.e. the role of Columbus or Hitler) the most influential causes compared to more abstract causes as economic or political aspects.

Nevertheless, a number of differences has also been found. These deal with subjects giving more importance to different causes according to the specific historical events. For example, ideological aspects are considered essential in the case of the Second World War and economic aspects are considered very important in the case of the Discovery of America. Finally, a number of instructional implications of this research is also taken into account, specically concerning the role of causal explanations in textbooks.


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IMPROVING THINKING SKILLS THROUGH COGNITIVE INTERVENTION.

Convener: GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, Javier; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Thinking is actually one of the main subjects in cognitive psychology. A great deal of investigation is aimed to analyze and describe thinking skills. We often find induction, deduction, decision, etc. as thinking skills, and processing models are accounting for them. One of the most important applications of cognitive psychology today is the elaboration and evaluation of training programs to improve thinking skills. The research in this area points out that cognitive abilities can be improved, we can increase intelligence.

To increase intelligence the usual way consists of a complex, organized and hierarchized sequence of tasks impling different processes. Nevertheless, environmental variables play an important role. School planning, instructional procedures, instrumentation, etc. are remarkable aspects in the educative practice.

Our proposal in this symposium is the precission of theseconcepts, the description of strategies and programs and the presentation and validation of applications in this area as a mean to improve theoretical and applied knowledge on this topic.


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ENHANCING COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING USING INFORMATION - PROCESSING CONCEPTS.

BAVEJA, Bharati; Delhi University, Delhi, India.

Recent studies conducted in the area of Cognitive Psychology including my own intensive research in the area of thinking, indicate that cognitive capabilities of individuals can be enhanced irrespective of the intellectual levels that intelligence tests assign them. Understanding cognitive functioning in terms of mental process underlying intellectual beheviour or cognitive behaviour of high order, enables one to isolate and define the information processing components involved in that task. Researches conducted in this area point towards the tenability of the thesis that cognitive capacities can be improved and individuals can be made "More Intelligent". This can be enforced through environmental programming in terms of providing suitable experiences for developing different information-processing components so that intelligence develops as a whole. The lop-sided activities of humans, specially in formal situations like school etc. malnurish the mind. Quantitative and qualitative improvements in cognitive functioning require experiences encompassing all areas of intellect. Learning tasks in formal settings should therefore, be deliverately designed to exercise various mental processes so that a fully functioning mind evolves. This challenging task requires logical and creative integration of ideas about learning, intelligence and teaching. With this as the central theme, the paper will discuss how certain information processing components can be developed by designing specific learning experiences. The discussion though, will largely be based on author's research work but will also mention other researches conducted in India, in this regard.


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COGNITIVE EVALUATION AND INTERVENTION TO DEVELOPE LEARNING AND THINKING SKILLS.

GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J.; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

The aim of this paper is to present the Symposium on Cognitive intervention to improve thinking skills. With this purpose, it defines the role of evaluation and intervention in cognitive training to establish a theoretical frame for the different papers included in the symposium and determines the order in which they are going to be presented according to the main aspects of this frame.


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METACOGNITION ASSESSMENT BY ITS COGNITIVE COMPONENTS.

MAYOR, J., GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J., SUENGAS, A., GARCÍA-GALLO, J., MIRANDA, E. and VÁZQUEZ, S.; Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Mayor, Suengas and González Marqués (1993) present a global model of metacognition that is made up of three main dimensions: metacognitive activity, cognitive activity on which it acts, and the variables that modulate both activities. Each of these three dimensions can be divided in three more basic ones. The most important basic dimension of cognitive activity is that of the components: representations, processes and functions.

The present study refers to metacognition assessment through the role that its cognitive components play on it. We have developed a questionnaire that, focused on these components, assesses the fundamental aspects of metacognitive activity. In addition, it takes into account the main variables that operate on both cognitive and metacognitive activities. The present questionnaire has been answered by a sample of Psychology students. The obtained data yield information on which are the core elements in defining the subject's metacognitive capacity profiles.


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DATA-BASED SCHOOL PLANNING; A PROCESS AIMED AT SUCCESS.

NEARINE, Robert J.; Connecticut Public Schools, USA.

In the fall of 1991, the reform-oriented superintendent of a large minority urban center initiated a data-based school planning system. Operational Management Guides (OMG) were designed to help schools and programs establish high but reasonable standards for student learning; initiate a process for communicating changes and improvements over time; measure and report accomplishments using instruments and terms which were generally understood and accepted; and use the planning process to reflect the district's belief that student learning was the public schools primary mission.

While OMG planning was well grounded in theory, implementation was beset with problems from the outset: Administrators were required to complete non-plan related monthly reports and attend theory-based monthly meetings which all but ignored emerging school problems; plans for supervisory monitoring had not been developed; and reported problems or discrepancies were often ignored. Had these and other problems become addressed in a timely manner, the OMG planning process might well have been a major success.

This case study describes the conceptual OMG planning framework and the lessons which were learned during its first two years of operation. The case study includes data-based suggestions to improve the planning process, and with it, school and program operations.


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DEVELOP OF THINKING ABILITIES USING A COMPUTER PROGRAM.

TIRADO, Felipe and SÁNCHEZ, Andrés; National University of Mexico, Mexico.

We apply a test program for thinking abilities to 160 children that were studying primary school. We use two versions of the test program, one was a traditional paper and pencil test and the other one was a computerized program. Seventy-eight students used the traditional one and 77 used the computer version.

We consider that children are strongly motivated if they can respond into a computer program. We suppose that children pay more attention, are more dedicated and the threshold of the fatigue is higher when they are working with a computer. The hypothesis of this study was that students get better result in thinking abilities test if it is presented by a computer program rather than a traditional version of paper and pencil.

The results support the hypothesis. If we control the age variable, we found that the mean with paper and pencil was 48.03% of right answers, and with the computer program was 60.00%; in the analysis of variance (ANOVA) the value of p = 0.027. If we control the level of scholarly, the mean of paper and pencil was 46.83% and with the computer version was 61.66%; with a value of p = 0.002 in the analysis of variance.

Furthermore, students were asked how much they liked the computer program, if they would "play" again, if it was amusing. The children answer very positive, most of them (82%).


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THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTION, APTITUTE, AND, GROUPING ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT OF FOURTH GRADE GERMAN STUDENTS STUDYING UNDER MASTERY LEARNING AND NORMAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION.

YILDIRAN, Güzver and HACKENBERG, Robert; Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The aim of this intervention study was to assess the effects of instruction type, ability grouping, and attitude, on summative achievement levels of fourth grade students studying mathematics in a German elementary school. All four fourth grade classes of the school were included in the study. The hypotheses of the study were: H1: The effects of instruction type, student ability grouping, and aptitude on achievement will be significant: H2: The effect of instruction on achievement will be higher than the effect of either intelligence and ability grouping on achievement: H3: The variation in achievement under Mastery Learning instruction will be smaller than under conventional instruction: and H4: The correlation between intelligence and achievement will be less under Mastery Learning than under conventional instruction. The analyses of the data obtained in the study show that: 1.(a) Mastery Learning has a strong effect on summative achievement, (b) the effect of intelligence is much smaller than that of Mastery Learning, (c) the trend shows evidence for the positive effect of heterogeneous ability grouping under conventional instruction: 2. The variation in achievement under Mastery Learning classes is substantially smaller than the variance in achievement under conventional instruction classes, and 3. Under Mastery Learning with heterogeneous ability grouping, the correlation between intelligence and summative achievement is lower than in all other classes.


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THE SELF-REGULATED LEARNER AS A MATHEMATICS PROBLEM SOLVER.

CARDELLE-ELAWAR, María; Arizona State University West, Arizona, USA.

This study describes a self-regulated process grounded on metacognitive theory that proved to be effective in guiding students from different ability levels how to improve the mathematics performance. This metacognitive approach is based on the IDEA MODEL developed by CardelleElawar (1993)*. The model led the students, first, to IDENTIFY not only the problem they experienced in working mathematics but also the cause (e.g., lack of effort, previous knowledge); second, to DEFINE why this problem exist and how to verbalize it so that other students and the teacher understand what the problem is; third, to EXPLORE strategies and alternatives to solve it; and fourth, to ASSESS their progress. Ninety high school students (30 were bilingual) engaged in this selfregulating metacognitive process to improve their mathematics performance. The results indicated that students independently of their ability level improved their mathematics performance, reflectivity and motivation. However, higher performance were observed in students with low mathematics ability, motivation and reflectivity. Students using this metacognitive developmental approach shifted from an external locus of control on attributing their mathematics difficulties to the task and the teacher to a more internal one that focus on their own motivation and effort to learn. Teachers also observed improvement in classroom discipline.


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DEVELOPING THINKING SKILLS AT UNIVERSITY LEYEL, A PROPOSAL

ALFONSO DE LEÓN, Carmen E.; GÓMEZ DE SORIANO, Myriam and ROJAS VELASQUEZ, Freddy; Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela.

Entering the University is a difficult task for high-school students. The way through University is plagued with all kinds of different problems among which we can highlight student selection policies applied by most universities. That is, students have to comply with specific pre-established academic achievement requirements which, in the face of the Venezuelan educational reality. are difficult to meet. Furthermore, a superficial analysis of the academic performance at the university reveals that when they reach the university level only a very low 15% of our students finish their career. This parlicular problem appears to be associated with curriculum design strategies which somehow fail to provide the students with the thinking abilities to access knowledge. This is a two-fold problem that involves both teacher and student training.

The aim of this research project is to suggest the development of a curriculum that takes into account both knowledge and processes within the thereotical framework already researched by Arons, 1979; Sternberg, 1986; Jone et al. 1987; Marzano y Pagner, 1989; Costa, 1990; Baker, 1991; Tishman, 1992 and Sánchez, 1992. In specific terms, it is being proposed a program that attempts to provide the students involve some aspects such as, problem solving, meta-cognitive abilities, reading abilities and learning strategies. And the other hand, to train the teachers who eventually be encharged of the program.

Finally, it is hoped that a program of this nature will contribute to the solution of the problems mentioned above.


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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION OF READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES AND COGNITIVE STUDY SKILLS IN UNIVERSITY AND HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS.

LÓPEZ, Miguel and CASTAÑEDA, Sandra; National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico.

The increasing number of students at college and high school level Mexico demands the development of theoretical models as well as educational technology. These should enable students to acquire and apply knowledge, and to prevent problems that promote academic attrition.

The major purpose of this paper is to provide general information on two expert systems: one called "THOR - OMBOLO" and the other "MIDE". They diagnose problems in text study skills on the one hand and in linguistic elaboration and self-assessment strategies on the other.

Both being predictive expert systems, based on fifteen years of research in learning problems in Mexico, they could become powerful instruments, early detecting risk factors in average students as well as identifying high risk students who require immediate intervention.

They have four interrelated functions: 1) DIAGNOSIS of problems in strategic learning; 2) PRESCRIPTION of the appropiate treatment according to a required level; 3) TUTORING: supporting the user's decision making, informing him/her "why" it asks a certain question and "how" it arrives at a particular diagnosis or prescription, and 4) INFORMATION STORAGE: supporting the researcher, providing him/her a complete and accurate register of the information.


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RECENT EVOLUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF/FOR THE PRACTICES OF CAREER PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION.

Convener: COIMBRA, Joaquim;

The main goal of this symposium is to present, explore, and discuss recent evolutions in the fields of Psychology/Psychological intervention and Guidance that might be useful to design career psychological interventions. A cluster of reasons may underly the moderate effects of current career interventions: a didactic approach (i.e., non psychological) that general disregards the client's logic of functioning; the non-consideration of personal development as object and objective of career interventions (and therefore the inexistence of a systematic orientation towards the activaction of psychological processes and mechanisms that regulate developmental change); the epistemological assumption according to which career guidance should be centered on the individual neglecting the relational (commitment) dimension between the subject and the world; the naive integration of the process of career development in a changing world of education and work, etc.. In this sense, issues as the needs assessment of clients (e.g., vocationalrepresentations, future plans...) and the respective formulation of intervention objectives, data on intervention methods evaluation, or the analysis of career intervention strategies will be presented and discussed in order to facilitate the emergence of a set of consistent guidelines that might be translated into career psychological practices.


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EVALUATIONS OF A WORKSHOP METHOD DESIGNED TO HELP POORLY MOTIVATED STUDENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL AND CAREER AIMS.

GUICHARD, Jean; Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - INETOP, Paris, France.

"DAPPI" is a psycho-educational method designed for poorly motivated secondary students or school drop-out. It goals are:

- to help them overcome the prevalent feeling that the dice have been cast,

- to give themselves occupational goals which are not based on stereotyped job images,

- to stimulate them to become involved in activities which enable them to acquire the skills, knowledege and know-how they need.

This group method is based on data about the spontaneous images of the future of weak students gathered in different european countries. "DAPPI" involves four half-day sessions and comprises differents exercices which will be described. The results of various assessments (all of them grounded on the comparison of the changes in two paired groups) will be summed up.


SY EDC (11) 2

A CAREER LEARNING THEORY: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HELPING YOUNG ADULTS.

LAW, Bill; National Institute for Careers Education and Counseling, Cambridge, UK.

There are many explanations of how people develop their careers. Traits-and-factors, affective and motivational influences, macro-social structural and local community-interactive factors are all cited, and find some confirmation in research and practice. This is because different people pay attention to different things. A unifying theory comes from the question "why is this so?".

Career-learning theory proposes an unfolding narrative in answer to that question, beginning in infancy and progressing into young adulthood.

It suggests promising practical measures. They address the following specific questions. "What can we do to help young people...

... gather information about work, role and self in the world?.

... frame the information into useful sequences?.

... make comparisons between alternative scenarios?.

... develop useful concepts?.

... deal with alternative points-of-view?.

... take their own view?.

... develop explanations of how things are now?.

... anticipate the consequences of their own and other's actions?".

The sequence is progressive in the sense that later tasks cannot be accomplished unless earlier ones are accomplished first. The implications for how we educate our children are extensive. They need to know and understand much more than they do, about how who-does-what in the working world is decided, and about what they can do about that. In the current world-economic situation - the implications are also urgent.


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VOCATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS AND FUTURE PLANS OF STUDENTS IN CHANGING SOCIETY AND ITS CHALLENGES FOR THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE.

SINISALO, Pentti; University of Joensuu, Finland.

The paper is based on two surveys of students at the last grade of nine years general basic education. The comparison of two cohorts in 1977 (n= 780) and 1989 (n= 621) revealed changes in occupational preferences, plans and hopes which are related to societal and cultural development during the 1980s. Gender, education and socio-economic status together strongly determine the occupational orientation of students. The second survey examined the representations of occupations comprehensive school leavers (n= 104) have and categories they use when describing different occupations. Differences between boys and girls, good and poor school-achievers were found. The paper discusses theoretical and practical questions in the development of vocational guidance in the changing world of education and work, and the nature of occupational interests and preferences.


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CAREER INTERVENTION FROM A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: DEFINITION OF THE MAIN INGREDIENTS OF AN ECOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY.

Coimbra, J.L.; Campos, B.P.; Imaginário, L.; Porto State University, Porto, Portugal.

Based on previous work aimed at reformulating at a theoretical level the problem of Career Guidance (where a psychological perspective was assumed) the present communication is focused on the translation of that model into career guidance practices. These should be centred on: (a) fostering the client's career development, and (b) transforming ecological contexts' ability to provide developmental quality experiences/interactions in order to progressivily transform the subject/client's-world (of training and work) relationship, i.e., the exploration of career commitment. In this sense different types of intervention strategies will be presented and discussed adopting and adapting various methodologies developed in different fields of psychological intervention, e.g., counselling and psychotherapy (constnuctivist approaches), developmental group intervention (deliberate psychological education), and consultation/social and community intervention (developmental-ecological and community interaction approaches). Finally the main ingredients of a general intervention strategy for career guidance will be analysed: action, integration and relationship.


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LIFE PLANNING FOR SELF-REALIZATION THROUGH VOCATIONAL CAREERS.

Convenor: KRAU, Edgar; Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

We plan to present the process of vocational choice in a new light as related to the person's aspirations for self-realization, and to propose new counseling methods to enhance this process. Actually, the meaning of adolescents' vocational choice is to choose a path for self-realization, but in a majority of cases this latter is linked to a vocational career, either as a specific vocational activity, or as an instrument for achieving desired status characteristics. Often the contribution of vocational careers to self-realization is in allowing to complete things that were missing in childhood and to work out a central life theme. The process of self-realization is linked to the evolution of the person's selfconcept, and it may be enhanced through counseling for life planning and the organization of a "managed" school tract combining curricular and extra-curricula school activities.


SY EDC (12) 1

LIFE CAREER PLANNING AND PREDICTION.

KRAU, Edgar; Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

Investigations started 25 years ago with a cohort of 198 youg industrial workers who underwent psychological testing at trade school entry. They were followed up during ten years and their careers were compared with the initial test results. In other samples the comparison was retrospective concerning the content and implementation of aspirations for self-realization. Recent investigations aimed at establishing a link between personality style, career type, life domain salience and self-realization.

Life plans crystallize in adolescence in an image with various degrees of clarity and goal directedness. Its content is influenced by the circumstances in which people form their personality. This image is translated into a broad career orientation of an ascent or horizontalistic type which can be predicted in adolescence and remains stable in later years. The ascent career type is linked to the type A personality style and the life domain salience of work and studies. People belonging to the type B personality style have horizontalistic careers whereby the family and/or leisure are the salient life domains. Achievements within these patterns are predictable.


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LIFE PLANNING FOR SELF-REALIZATION: CAREER INTERESTS AS SOLUTIONS.

SAVICKAS, Mark L.; Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, USA.

Transforming career guidance into life planning recasts the goal of vocational psychology from helping clients identify viable occupations to fostering their self-realization. Prevailing views of vocational psychology concentrate on the match between a person and occupation. This view follows from the logical positivist philosophy of science that seeks objectivity in career guidance. Accordingly, vocational psychologists objectify people by measuring and profiling their interests and abilities. Psychologists then match these objective traits to occupational skills and reinforcers. Objectively matching person to position produces a fit that leads to job success.

Re-viewing career guidance from the vantage point of constructivist philosophy of science moves the emphasis from objective to subjective fit. Life planning aids clients in their quest for meaning by determining how they can use life roles to complete needs that were unmet during childhood and to work out a central life project Life planning fosters self-realization by showing clients how to turn their personal preoccupations into social occupations. Essentially, life planning for self-realization expands the agenda of career guidance by showing clients how to use career interests as solutions to problems in growing up and adapting to adult life.


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VOCATIONAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN: A DEVELOPMENTAL-CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE.

VONDRACEK, Fred W.; The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.

Evidence is reviewed which suggests that the ability to work productively and occupy a meaningful worker role in society represents one of the principal means for self-realization. The development of a vocational identity represents one of the essential processes involved in the acquisition of such a fulfilling worker role.

Contrary to conventional wisdom, vocational identity development should not be viewed as a process that is confined to the late adolescence/early adulthood period. Instead, it should be conceptualized as a lifespan process, with antecedents that can be identified in early and middle childhood, leading to the development of initial vocational identities which are eventually superseded by vocational identities that are shaped, in part, by accumulated experiences. Neither personal attributes nor characteristics of the context determine the nature of vocational identity; it is the dynamic interaction between them that offers the key to understanding and to facilitating its development.


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LIFE PLANNING FOR SELF-REALIZATION THROUGH VOCATIONAL CAREERS.

DUPONT, J. B.; University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Using results from a recent surv ey, the author attempts to respond empirically to the problem posed by this symposium.

Basing themselves freely on the model of personality by Royce and Powell, the author and his colleagues hav e constructed a battery of tests measuring certain cognitive, affective and evaluative (interests, values) dimensions. In some of them, reference to self-image or self-realization is explicitly made, while in others this is implicit.

The battery was given to several groups of people (adolescents and adults alike) each at different stages in their carreer or personal ev olution. Using this as a criterion, the author and his colleagues have effectuated a series of comparisons which bring out the psychological dimensions (self-image or not) characterizing professional evolution.


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LE PROJET PROFESSIONNEL, EXPRESSION D'UN VÉRITABLE PROJET DE VIE.

GOGUELIN, P.; Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Versailles, France.

Depuis 1991, la loi française considère que le congé formation d'un salarié peut s'assortir d'un bilan de compétences visant à déterminer s'il est capable de suivre une formation qualifiante allant dans le sens du développement des ressources humaines de son entreprise. Une telle disposition est valable si l'on considère l'efficacité et la rentabilité immédiates, mais, pour un psychologue, elle est très restrictive puisqu'on ne prend pas vraiment en compte le développement de l'homme tel qu'il le souhaite lui-même. La motivation de l'homme n'est accrue que sur le court terme (avoir une promotion), elle répond aux besoins de la base de la pyramide de Maslow (besoins physiques et de sécurité), de ceux qu'Herzberg nomme les "dissatisfiers", qui cessent d'être motivateurs lorsqu'ils sont satisfaits. Nous avons montré qu'un projet professionnel n'est dynamique que s'il s'intègre à un véritable projet de vie, s'il en est la projection dans la vie de travail, autrement dit, s'il est pensé sur le moyen et le long terme. Que faudrait-il alors faire pour utiliser et concevoir un bilan de compétences qui intégrerait mieux l'homme total et ce même homme au travail?. Tel sera l'objet de notre réflexion et de notre proposition.


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WORK PLANNING, PLANNING DISPOSITION, AND SELF-REALIZATION.

HACKER, Winfried; Institute of Psychology, Dresden University of

Technology, Dresden, Germany.

1. For several groups of employees (n = 420) was investigated, whether or not there exists an individual disposition or tendency of planning. For that purpose a questionnaire and planning tests (logistic tasks with ecological validity) were developed. Actually a reliable disposition for planning in work, family, and leisure activities was identified.

2. In a cross-cultural comparision a highly similar factor-structure of the disposition could be shown.

3. The structure of the planning disposition and its strength differ between the three settings work, family, and leisure. That means, there is a setting-specific planning behaviour.

4. In the work situation a significant relationship exists between the reported planning disposition and actual action preparation. Tasks with decision latitude proposed, the planning disposition will significantly predict the scheduling strategy and - examined in pilot studies only - the performance criteria.

5. There are good reasons to distinguish between a momentary and a planning strategy, the latter being an active and anticipative way of coping with demands. The planning strategy may be conceptualized as an aspect of self realization: Strengthening this strategy will improve emotional stability (vs neurotizism) and apply and, thus, enhance essential parts of qualification.SY EDC (13) 0

AN ANALYSIS OF VALUE PROFILES IN FUTURE TEACHERS. A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

Convenor: LUJAN, Isabel; Universidad Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

This study has adouble sim: on one hand, conscious of the importance of discovering the underlying values and theories in future teachers, we analize the value tha lead students' lives in the Teacher Training Colleges of: Brasilia-Brasil, Lisbon-Portugal, Concepción-Chile, Caracas-Venezuela and Las Palmas de G.C.-Spain. On the other hand, we present a cross-cultural study among the different colleges and groups studied.

A questionnarie developed by Schwartz (1992) was used in order to measure the 10 types of values in his content and structure value theory. The sample includes 750 future teachers (150 per country) in which sex, socioeconomic status, age and level of studies are studied. The results are presented not only in terms of inner analysis in each sampe but also in terms of comparations among the countries tha intervened in this study. We hope that the results will allow us to take decisions that stimulate future teachers to reflect on the importance of values. We also hope that the results will facilitate the design of inservice plans in order to analyze teachers' values and to contribute to the improvement of their practice.


SY EDC (13) 1

MEASURING VALUES: THEORY AND QUESTIONNAIRE

SCHWARTZ, Shalom H.; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

A new value survey, employed in over 41 countries, was used in this project. The conception of values underlying the survey will be presented and its expression in the structure and response format of the questionnaire will be explained. The theoretical rationale for sampling the value items included in the questionnaire will be explicated. Some evidence showing that results with the survey support the theory underlying its construction will be cited. Finally, methods for generating value priority scores for each of ten cross-culturally comparable value types will be described.


SY EDC (13) 2

VALUE PROFILE OF PRESENT AND FUTURE BRASILIAN TEACHERS

TAMAYO, Alvaro; University of Brasilia, Brasil.

The hierarchy of 56 cross.cultural values and 4 Brazilian values was established with a sample of 419 subjects, male and female school teachers (N=169) and future school teachers, that is, teachers' college students (N=250). This hierarchical order was established at the values level as well as at the motivational types level. Sub-group differences were also verified at the motivational type level and at the bi-dimentional structure of values level. Five distinct levels of values were observed for the total sample. Of the ten motivational types of values, the self-determination was the most important type. The Anova 2x2 revealed that women emphasized more than men the set of value types whose goal serves collective interests and the value types relative to self-transcendence of selfish concerns and promotion of the welfare of others. Teachers' college students scored higher than teachers n the following motivational types: self-determination, hedonism, stimulation, achievement and universalism. The scores were higher for teachers on: tradition and conformily. Finally, students revealed to be more motivated than teachers to enhace his or her own personal interests (self-enhacement dimension) and to follow his or her own emotional and intellectual interests (openness to change dimension).


SY EDC (13) 3

ANALYSIS OF VALUE PROFILES IN FUTURE TEACHERS. A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY: THE PORTUGUESE DATA.

CÉSAR, Margarida; F.C.U.L., Portugal.

This study is part of a broader cross-cultural one which main objectives are to discover future teachers' values and to compare them in some samples from different countries.

The instrument we used was a Portuguese translation of a modification of the Rohead Value Survey (1973) proposed by Schwartz and Bilsky (1987). The Portuguese sample includes 160 future teachers (10 male and 150 female) that are preparing themselves to teach at the pre-primary level and from the 1st till the 6th grade. Their ages vary from 17 till 51 years old and we organized two age groups for statistical analysis (17-21; more than 22) that proved to be significantly different in terms of values (t-test). Other statistical treatments show the hierarchy of the values that these future teachers have, giving place to a better understanding of the profiles that are more representative for our sample.

We will compare our results with those from other countries and will try to explain the differences between them.

We hope that this type of research will be helpfull to a better understanding of teachers' behaviors and to the planning of future teachers' college studies.


SY EDC (13) 4


SY EDC (13) 5

ANALYSIS OF VALUE PROFILES IN FUTURES TEACHERS. A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY. THE VENEZUELAN CASE.

IRURETA NUÑEZ, Luisa; Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.

Values are characteristics which reflect social context acquired in the socialization process. In the last twenty years Venezuela has swung from one economic extreme to another: from badly administered superabundance to badly administered scarcity. Over that period social values have cleary deteriorated, as in evidenced by, among other things, innumerable cases of corruption, an increase in commom anh white collar crime, and an expressions that are symptomatic of the extent of this reversal of values. These factors are accompanied by a deterioration in the family and the educational system.

Student teachers in the pre-school and primary areas were brought up in this socioeconomic

debacle and their values learned in its contex. This group of students is of great importance

to the recovery of the fundamental values to which our society aspires. On the basis of these results, we will propose actinos to help recover the values that should be guiding these young teachers who have chosen to be mentors of our children.


SY EDC (14) 1

THE QUALITY OF TALK IN THE CLASSROOM.

MERCER, Neil and WEGERIF, Rupert; The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.

This paper presents an analysis of talk between children working together in primary school classrooms, and it is attempted to distinguish between certain ways of talking in terms of their significance for the process of classroom education. The relevance and adecuacy of Vygotskian and neo-Vygotskian theory as a basis for this analysis is considered. This leads on to a consideration of how the processes of collaborative learning and learning under the guidance of a teacher can best be dealt with within a single sociocultural theoretical framework.


SY EDC (14) 2

CHILDREN'S ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULT-CHILD INTERACTIONS.

MEDINA LIBERTY, Adrián; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico.

One of the most important contributions of Vygotsky's ideas is the proposal that human thought must be understood in its concrete sociocultural context. In this paper it is argue that Vygotsky's zone of proximal development (ZPD) connects this general statement with a pedagogical perspective on education. In fact, educational applications of this concept have become well known in recent years. Findings related to the relationships among adult-child (preschoolers) interactions and children's learning within the ZPD are examined here. It is concluded that adults providing contingent regulations promote children's learning, suggesting that development or learning proceeds in the direction of current adult models of culturally appropriate practices. Some aspects concerning to language self-regulations functions are also discussed.


SY EDC (14) 3

THE SCAFFOLDING OF LITERACY PRACTICES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION.

ROJAS-DRUMMOND, S.; MERCADO, R., OLMOS, A. and WEBER, E.; National Autonomus University of Mexico, Mexico.

We present research on the development and promotion of functional literacy in Mexican primary school children. The basic focus of our research is to understand some developmental, learning and instructional facors, including teacher's scaffolding processes, which contribute to the growth of competence for comprehending and producing written discourse for a variety of functions (functional literacy). The applied focus concerns promotion of functional literacy through interventional programs in the classroom.

This project is based on a sociocultural perspective. Thus, we make explicit how different constructs and applied developments have served as the basis of both understanding and promoting functional literacy practices in an educational setting. Within this perspective, promotion has been carried out following a socio-instructional approach that fosters cooperative learning procedures. Results showed better student performance in various cuantitative and cualitative measures of functional literacy, which include text comprehension, production and learning activities when using cooperative learning in comparison with regular classroom practices. These results highlight the advantages of using a socio-instructional approach as part of the regular classroom activities.


SY EDC (14) 4

SOCIOHISTORICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTIONISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOLING AND LITERACY.

DURAN, Richard; University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.

Vygotsky's broader program of inquiry focused on the origins of human consciousness and how consciousness is made possible through mediation founded on symbol-use in social interaction. Activity theorists, and more recently, investigators of situated cognition, call attention to ways in which the individuals realize problem solving as members of cultural communities of practice. Both perspectives are used to interpret interaction data arising from students working in cooperative learning activities.

The cooperative learning activities under investigation are part of a curriculum known as Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) that is intended to teach children reading and writing skills. Attention is given to examples of children's CIRC interaction that show how children construct activity and conscious framing of problem solving activity. Children's mutual participation in cooperative learning interaction creates forms of mediation guiding interpretation and completion of coo'perative learning activity. Children's ability to explore a range of problems arising in cooperative activity is a locally constructed process dependent on children's continuous monitoring of their mutual performances.

Children's CIRC interaction creates a cultural community of practice. Within this community children co-construct social identities that enable and encourage forms of literate action that are resources for further development within schooling.SY EDC (15) 1

COMPARISON OF THE ACADEMIC INTERESTS AND STUDY PREFERENCES OF YOUNG AMERICAN AND IRISH STUDENTS.

BOLIEK BARNETT, Linda and CLOSE, Sean; Center for Talented Youth, Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A.

For several years St. Patrick's College in Dublin, Ireland has identified young students, approximately 10-11 years of age, for matematics courses by using the Raven's matrices. Since 1985, the Young Students Program of The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth (CTY) has identified American students on the East and West Coasts for course work in mathematics, the humanities, or both by using the above-grade-level standardized tests. The same preference questionnaire regarding academic interests, study habits, and relationships with peers was administered to young American students qualifying for programs and to young Irish students attending the St. Patrick's program. Results of the questionnaire will be presented along with demographic data.


SY EDC (15) 2

COMPARISON OF SAT SCORES FOR IRISH AND AMERICAN STUDENTS USED TO IDENTIFY ACADEMIC TALENT OF STUDENTS FOR IRELAND AND UNITED STATES.

BOLIEK BARNETT, Linda and KENNY, Helen; Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A.

Dublin City University established the Irish Centre for Talented Youth (CTYI) in the spring of 1992, using The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth (CTY) as its model. The establishment of the Centre was the culmination of several years of programmatic review.

Although this method of identification was introduced in the States in 1972, CTYI is the first major replication of CTY Talent Search procedures and academic courses on a national level. Identification procedures rely on above-level standardized testing; the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), used by CTY for more than a decade in both its national and international Talent Searches, proved a reliable testing instrument in Ireland as well. Over five hundred students, aged 12-15, took part in the CTYI Talent Search; comparison of the mean SAT scores of American and Irish participants is presented.

CTYI offers qualifying Irish students the opportunity to enroll in rigorous course work closely matched to their demonstrated academic ability; the program also serves as the international site for US participants who choose to study abroad. In 1993, students from the US, England, and Greece, as well as Ireland, attended CTYI; demographic data will be provided on students attending the three-week program in Dublin.


SY EDC (15) 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WHO REASON EXTREMELY WELL MATHEMATICALLY AND/OR VERBALLY.

BRODY, Linda E. and BLACKBURN, Carol C.; The Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A.

The Study of Exceptional Talent (SET) at the Center for Talented Youth, The Johns Hopkins University, identifies and studies students who score 700-800 on the mathematical portion and/or 630-800 on the verbal portion of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) before age 13. mong college bound 12th grade students, such scores represent approximately the top five percent of the population; among 12 year olds such scores suggest truly exceptional mathematical and/or verbal reasoning ability. Since 1980, approximately 1400 students have been identified for SET. These students represent all regions of the United States and a few other countries. The population ranges in age from 10 year olds identified in 1994 to individuals now in their mid-20s. We will present descriptive data on this group, including background information obtained when they qualified for SET with regard to their abilities, family backgrounds, career interests, educational experiences, and achievements, as well as relevant information about the group today obtained from follow-up surveys. Subgroup comparisons by gender and ethnic background will also be made. The implications of these findings for educational intervention and career counseling will be explored.


SY EDC (15) 4

COGNITIVE/PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILES OF GIFTED ADOLESCENTS: ABILITY, CULTURAL, AND GENDER COMPARISON.

MILLS, Carol J.; Center for Talented Youth (CTY), Johns Hopkins University, United States.

This study examines and compares the cognitive/psychological style profiles of academically talented adolescents in two countries: USA and Ireland. The MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to assess students type preferences on four bi-polar dimensions: extraversionintroversion, sensing-intuiting, thinkingfeeling, and judging-perceiving. Preferences on these dimensions have been related to temperament, personality, cognition, and learning style differences. Analyses revealed differences in profile distributions between academically talented students and a "normative" sample of adolescents. In addition, gender differences, as well as cultural differences, were found within and between the samples. The difference found between the academically talented samples (both US and Irish samples) and the "normative" samples was larger than the gender or cultural differences found within the academically talented groups. This finding suggests that gifted students as a group, regardless of gender or cultural background, have common psychological profiles that differentiate them from a general population of students. Results suggest that many intellectually gifted students may have learning styles and counseling needs that set them apart from most of their classmates, and that require special attention and intervention.


SY EDC (15) 5

TEMPERAMENT AND INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES: PERSONS IN THE TWENTIES/THIRTIES AS COMPARED WITH PERSONS IN THE FORTIES/FIFTIES.

PIOTROWSKA, Anna and STRELAU, Jan; University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of the research was to: (a) study the relationship between selected temperamental characteristics and several aspects of intellectual functioning, and (b) to examine whether this relationship is age-specific. The prediction based on some preliminary data was that (a) temperamental traits which refer to the temporal components of behavior (briskness, perseverance, and mobility) will be positively correlated with intellectual characteristics referring to fluency and flexibility; (b) the temperament-intellect relationship is developmentally specific. Temperamental traits were measured in 99 subjects aged from 22 to 55 years by means of the Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory (FCBTI). The Guilford's test and the Raven Progressive Matrices were applied for measuring intellectual abilities. The results show, among other things, that the relationship between both domains being studied is age- and gender-specific and also depends on the subjects' level of education. Among seven intellectual characteristics measured in this study fluency and originality (the intellectual part) and perseverance and emotional reactivity (the temperamental part) are related to each other. The link between temperament and intellect is interpreted in terms of formal characteristics of behavior to which both phenomena refer.


SY EDC (15) 6

GIFTEDNESS AND GENDER WHAT RESEARCH AND STATISTICS IS TELLING US.

WIECZERKOWSKI, Wilhelm and PRADO, Tania; University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Divergent attitudes and appraisal of boys and girls toward mathematics and science have been recognized in numerous studies referring to sexrelated differences in cognitive orientation, preferences and interests. In this study, mathematically able and inclined boys (N=363) and girls (N=309) of age 12, selected by talent searches in Hamburg and in USA (CTY-Baltimore) are interviewed and compared in their assumptions and assessment in the following variables: subjective estimation of utility, self-concept of mathematical ability, strength in mathematics and technology, interests in science and technology, strength in humanistics, interests in human relations, strength in language, preference for problems of practical relevance. The results will be discussed with respect to special measures designed to improve confidence, career desires, and preferences among gifted girls.SY EDC (17) 0

DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL JUDGEMENT AND SOCIO-AFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EDUCATIONAL AMBIT.

Conveners: PÉREZ-DELGADO, E. and MESTRE ESCRIVÁ, V.; Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.


SY EDC (17) 1

THE PROBLEM OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND MORAL EDUCATION.

DEL VALLE, L.; Universidad Católica de Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Formulated here the problem currently discussed by psychologists and pedagogues on the objectives of the moral education. The moral education must be centered in values transmission or, well, the moral education must be centered in promoting the moral development?. That educational implications has a position or the other?. The Kohlberg's psychology has assumed the second alternative. In this paper demonstrated the advantages of the psychology of the moral development as compared to the theory of values transmission.


SY EDC (17) 2

THE EFFECT OF FORMAL EDUCATION ON MORAL REASONING DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS.

PÉREZ DELGADO, E; Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Moral development studies have in recent years become a leading field within cognitive developmental psychology (Pérez-Delgado et al., 1991). Most of the research has been focused on the different antecedent variables and settings in the development of moral judgment (Haan et al., 1968; Kohlberg, 1973); the impact of formal education on such judgments have not received that much attention. On the other hand, there are an increasing number of transcultural studies that use the DIT, but none of them have used a spanish version of it on a spanish sample.

The purpose of this study is twofold. First, the detection of influences of cultural differences on the DIT measures of moral development in our social and linguistic context. Second, to test the hypothesis of the decisive influence of age and formal education on moral development (Rest, 1986; Pérez-Delgado et al., 1991).

Demonstrated in this paper that the influence of age and formal education on the development of moral reasoning in a spanish sample of students was assessed by using a spanish translation of rests defining issues test (DIT). Our results support the hypothesis that moral development is highly related to both variables in our cultural context, although more so with formal education than with age.


SY EDC (17) 3

SOCIOMORAL REASONING LEVE AND VARIABLE OF PERSONALITY.

MESTRE ESCRIVA, Vicenta; University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Several authors have verified that a high Self-concept interrelates with higher moral reasonning level and the subjets with high self-esteem are less concerned by if same and show a most altruistic behaviour toward the other. Futhermore, a atributional style internalist also interrelates with the sociomoral thougth. The present work has as objetive to verify the relationship among selfconcept and locus of control with the sociomoral reasoning level in an adolescents sample and young of our country. The used instruments are the DIT of Rest, the TENNESSEE SELF CONCEPT of Fitts, and the Personality Scale of LOCUS OF CONTROL of Rotter. Different studies have indicated the relationship among the sociomoral reasoning level of the subjects and afective variable associate with the personality of the subject.


SY EDC (17) 4

MORAL REASONING, VALUES AND NONVIOLANCE IN THE CLASSROOM.

MAYTON, Daniel M.; Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, U.S.A.

This study investigated the relationships among nonviolent personality predispositions (The Nonviolence Test, Kool & Sen, 1984), moral reasoning (DIT, REST, 1986), and values (Value Questionnaire, Schwartz, in press) among adolescents in west US. Nonviolents predispositions are interpreted in term of their relationship with the universal motivational domains of values and principled reasoning.


SY EDC (18) 0

MANAGING EDUCATION FOR EFFECTIVENESS.

Convenor: REVEN, John; Consultant on Education and Economic and Social Development, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Studies conducted in many countries show that most parents, pupils, teachers, and employers know that post-primary "education" is a mess: it confers few benefits on students, does not deserve to be described as "academic" or "intellectual" (because there is little exercise of judgment, creativity, analysis, or critical thinking), does little to help students develop competencies which will be useful at work or in society, or help them to identify and develop their own particular talents.

Public disquiet based on these insights has led politicians to impose wave after wave of "reforms" onto the educational system over the past 40 years. None of these reforms have been grounded in a careful attempt to build up adequate understandings of the nature of the problem and the reasons for the failure of the previous "solutions".

The available evidence suggests that what is wrong with post-primary education is very different from what has commonly been assumed. The developments that are needed are quintessentially psychological, ranging from developmental psychology through psychometrics to the application of the concepts and methods of organisational psychology to the management of public provision in such a way as to achieve its goals.

Work in hand in these areas, and necessary further developments, will be discussed.


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EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY AND HIGH ABILITY: AMERICAN POLICY AND RESEARCH.

WALBERG, Herbert J.; STARIHA, Winifred E. and WALLACE, Trudy; School of Education, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA.

This paper traces federal and state legislation pertaining to the education of students of high ability. Research on this population that has played a key role in shaping related educational policy is examined. At the beginning of the twentieth century misconcepts as to the characteristics of students of high ability existed. Such students were thought to be frail and emotionally unstable. Terman's studies did much to explode this myth. Research on creativity and educational productivity are examined in the context of American educational policy on students of high ability. The implications for the 21st century are discussed.

The rationale for providing differentiated programming for gifted students apart from regular or special education programmes is based on three premises. First, by definition, gifted students possess variability and potential unlike that of ordinary children. Second, the provision of equal educational opportunity ensures all students an equal starting point as well as an individualized educational program tailored to each student's ability to learn. Third, the gifted are a precious national resource; society stands to benefit immeasurably from their contributions. Terman (1925, p.v.) concluded that "The origin of genius .. and the environmental influences by which it may be affected ... are scientific problems of almost unequaled importance for human welfare."


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CRISES IN CHINA'S HIGHER EDUCATION MANAGEMENT AND COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST THEM. CASE STUDIES.

KANG, Naimei; Education Commission of Fujian Province, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

The rapid growth in China's economy over the past 10 years has greatly promoted the reform and development of higher education as a whole. However, the public used to concentrate on enlarging educational scale, increasing educational investments, and improving the system of enrolment and assignment of graduates, while ignoring the psychological factors and roles in education management. As a result, there has been little reform of higher education. Having selected some typical open-costal areas and educational managing organizations for analysis, the author is trying, on the basis of his experience and materials collected over the past 10 years, to discuss the current situation in order to discover the problems of, and explore an outlet for, China's higher education management. The aims are to discover countermeasures against the crises in China's higher education management, to lay the foundations for guidance and policy decision in the reform and development of China's higher education, and to provide a vivid example for theory and practice in world higher education management.


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WE HAVE TO CHANGE THE SYSTEM - BUT WHO KNOWS HOW: CASE STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION.

KLEIN, Sandor; SHL Hungary, Budapest, Hungary.

There is almost universal agreement that the educational system does not achieve its stated aims. Yet few radical attempts at solution stick. The problems - and potential ways forward - will be illustrated from case studies the author has conducted over the past 25 years.

Modern Mathematics. Hungary made a major effort to change this part of the syllabus. Between 1962 and 1974 100 volunteer teachers created rich empirical environments, in which children could discover about structures by participating in various game-like activities. In 1974 the Ministry of Education introduced the "method" nationwide. Today, little remains.

"Open Education". Starting in 1962, a really outstanding teacher created a remarkable environment for grade 1-4 children. The approach was popularised using all kinds of media, especially films and television. Today, most Hungarian teachers know about it. But there are few followers, and the approach is rarely practised in schools.

Humanistic Teacher Education. From 1982-88 the author, with the assistance of Carl Rogers, introduced student-centered approaches into teacher education. There was much interest and "noise". Today, almost all that remains are a few controversial memories of those exciting days.

The case studies will illustrate goals, methods, and accomplishments. However, they will also be used to help identify previously unsuspected barriers which will need to be overcome if a way forward is to be found.


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DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN A LARGE GROUP AWARENESS TRAINING.

HUGHES, Steven J.; University of Minnesota, Mineapolis, USA.

Large Group Awareness Trainings (LGATs) first became popular in the United States near the end of the Human Potentials movement. They combine elements of psychoeducation with intensive, encounter-group-like, group experience. The companies providing LGATs claim that these three or five day workshops can provoke profound and lasting gains in well-being and "personal effectiveness". While claims of positive affects on health and personality have been refuted1, growth in participants' Ego Development has been identified2. Participant reports suggest that LGATs provide an arena for individuals to experiment with authenticity, interpersonal trust, and group affiliation. These experiences may lead to improved social perception, gains in social development (particularly through Erickson's stage of Intimacy versus Isolation), and increased motivation for pro-social (moral) behavior.

This paper reports the results of a study utilizing ideographic and nomothetic research methods to identify broad developmental effects (on Ego Development and Moral Reasoning) and individualized effects unlikely to be detected using more conventional research methods. Preliminary findings suggest some developmental gains, with many participants considering the experience to be a "launching point" for new phases of their lives.

1Fisher, et al (1990). Evaluating a Large Group Awareness Training: A Longitudinal Study of Psychosocial Effects. New York: Springer-Verlag.

2Hartke, J. ll. (1989). Ego Development, Cognitive Style, and the est Standard Training. Doctoral Dissertation.


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LEARNING MOTIVATION AND LEARNING SKILLS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS.

LIN, Zhongmin; Institute of Higher Education Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

Three sets of questionnaires were used to assess the learning motivation and learning skills of college students. 800 students from different universities and colleges were studied.

The results indicated that:

1. General learning motivation is significantly correlated with performance at learning tasks, managing time, and concentration in students of all specialities, universities, and colleges. Motivation has a great impact on behaviour.

2. Motivation and attitude are only correlated with general thinking skills (one of the learning skills) in students of science and engineering, natural science, and liberal arts in universities. There are no significant correlations between these two factors among students of other specialities. The relationships between motivation and using study aids, preparation and review of lessons, and test-taking strategies are similar.

3. Among students of music and fine arts, motivation is correlated with special abilities. There is no significant correlation between motivation and special or general abilities among students of economics. This is a serious problem.

4. Although motivation and attitude influence general and special learning skills, learning skills have to be learned through teaching, experience, and communication. It is therefore important to create settings for students to develop their own skills, especially thinking skills, not only diligence by oneself.


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MOTIVATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND OUTCOMES OF LEARNING; A STUDY PROCESS IN A HIGHER AND FURTHER EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR HRD-EXPERTS.

KIRJONEN, Juhani; University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

The paper deals with one part of a research project called "Research - Education Development". Its aim was to investigate the learning process in an environment specifically designed as a communicative arena of researchers and practitioners. This part of the project investigates relations between the motivational orientations argued for at the beginning of the program, and learning outcomes when the program had advanced. It was hypothesized that the type of competence aspiration is the main watershed between successful and less successful learning outcomes. The data was collected by means of interviews, questionnaires, group discussions, and written documents. Participants comprised 28 HRD-experts from public administration. It was found that in general, the learning outcomes measured according to activity in studies, the quality of projects, and self-evaluations were positively related to the aspirations of actual competence argued for before the program began. However, there were also some exceptions which indicated that rather specific, attributive aspiration might be sufficient for good learning outcomes. I have also made certain evaluations of the whole program as a learning environment and a means for the enrichment of expert competence.


SY EDC (19) 1

A STRUCTURAL THEORY OF SPATIAL ABILITIES: EXAMPLES FROM BEHAVIOR GENETIC RESEARCH.

GUTTMAN, Ruth; The Scheinfeld Center for Human Genetics in the Social Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

A cylindrical wedge model has been proposed to represent the correlational structure of a variety of spatial ability tests. The model was developed from a battery of eleven spatial tests, assembled with the aid of a mapping sentence of four content facets: rule type, dimensionality, presence or absence of total rotation, and test format. In a behavior genetic family study, no evidence of X-linkage was found in the patterns of family correlations. The structure of the intercorrelations among scores of spatial tests was found to be invariant for fathers, mothers, sons and daughters, in spite of differing levels of performance. As in other studies, males performed better than females on the spatial tests. A short review will be presented of the present status of behavior genetic studies on spatial abilities.


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EFFECTS OF TASK CONSTITUENTS: A NEW WAY TO MEASURE SPATIAL ABILITIES.

BERG, Michael; Schuhfried G.m.b.H., Mödling, Austria.

It is well known from investigations done by Putz-Osterloh and Lüer (1979), as well as Just and Carpenter (1985), that tasks in classical tests constructed to measure spatial ability can be solved without this ability. For instance, mental rotation can be replaced by feature comparison. Thus, different ways of solving tasks can be the effect of different abilities. One way to analyze these effects is the theory-guided definition of more than one constituent of task difficulty as independent variables. A second step is the analysis of the individual profiles or categories of a common dependent variable, for instance, RT or the type of solution. Reasoning tasks often can be solved either by steps of inference or, on the other hand, by using spatial images. Pupils talented in mathematics and physics, advanced chess players, and preschool children with an early ability to read often prefer spatial solutions of reasoning tasks.

References:

Just, M.A., & Carpenter, P.A. (1985). Cognitive coordinates systems: accounts of mental rotation and individual differences in spatial ability. Psycholoqical Review, 92, 137-171.

Putz-Osterloh, W., & Lüer, G. (1979). Wann produzieren Probanden räumliche Vorstellungen beim Losen von Raumvorstellungsaufgaben?. Zeitschrift fur experimentelle und angewandte Psvchologie, 26, 138-156.


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GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN SPATIAL ABILITY: A STUDY ACROSS VARIOUS ITEM TYPES.

STUMPF, Heinrich; Center for Talented Youth, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

ELIOT, John; Institute for Child Study, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.

Spatial Ability is an area of cognitive functioning in which evidence of gender-related differences in performance tends to emerge relatively often. Previous research has shown, however, that different types of spatial tasks show different amounts of gender-sensitivity. Mental rotation tasks, for instance, have often shown large gender-related differences in favor of males, whereas there are small differences or advantages for females on visual memory tasks. We examined the profile of differences across a wide array of types of spatial tasks. Two forms of a spatial test battery containing 14 types of items each were administered to academically talented high school students. Factor analysis yielded a strong general factor (termed "k factor") underlying performance in both forms. The gender-sensitivity of the item types turned out to be largely a function of the loadings of the subtests on the k factor. When the k factor was partialed out, gender-related differences on most of the item types were reduced, and some tests that had initially exhibited little gender-related variance showed advantages for females. The results will be discussed with respect to structural models of spatial ability.


SY EDC (19) 4

SPATIAL ABILITY AND SUCCESS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED STUDENTS.

ELIOT, John; Institute for Child Study, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.

STUMPF, Heinrich; Center for Talented Youth, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Tests of spatial ability have been used repeatedly to predict success in science education, but results with respect to their predictive validity have been inconsistent. This inconsistency could be due in part to the fact that different types of spatial tasks were used. To assess the contributions of different spatial tests to the prediction of success, we constructed five versions of a spatial test battery containing up to 14 different types of spatial tests, and administered the battery to various samples of subjects enrolled in science courses for academically talented students. Most of the tests had a high level of reliability, although some of them were rather easy for this population. In general, complex spatial visualization and block rotation tasks proved to be the most predictively valid tests, whereas simple, highly speeded tasks and closure tests were poorly correlated with the criterion. A strong general factor of spatial ability was found to underlie performance in the various forms of the battery. This factor incorporated most of the predictive power of the battery, although its correlations with success in science education varied across different sciences.


SY EDC (20) 0

PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION.

Convenor: GONZÁLEZ TIRADOS, R. M.; U.P., Madrid, Spain.

The study and investigation of subjects related to university aspects presents some difficulties. However, due to its complexity and pecularities, this subject is becoming increasingly important and interesting for many researches in order to develop and analyse some of the aspects involved with university life, such as: students, lecturers and university organization in general, quality of teaching, etc.

Therefore, the fact of organizing a symposium aimed at subjects related to tertiary education has been caused by the increasingly number of papers that different researches from all over the world are presenting in this field, and also because of my personal experience for almost two decades on the subject, frequently opening the way to the psychologist in a rarely exploited field.

Four of the five sujects that are presented in this symposium are referred to research works carried out with university students from countries, such as Australia, Mexico, Spain, in some cases analysing the variables that make an influence on the academic performance and in other cases studying expectations and attitudes when faced with university studies, and their influence on performance.

These research works have been developed with examples of students who are taking their first or second academic year at university and, somehow, it is intended to look for similarities among the results obtained by student who are taking different university studies, or among the results obtained in secondary education and university.

The study referred to the students' expectations and attitudes also presents data from university students who are taking their first academic year, and have a predisposition and expectation determined beforehand in relation to their studies. It is analysed how this feeling can influence on their academic success or failure, in addition to get from this research a great amount of data dealing with the analysis of different variables.

It is only one paper presented in this symposium which refers to a study carried out with university teachers, taking into account their attitudes to the quality of different teaching methods and the possibility to change them after attending a training programme; for this reason a scale has been elaborated and validated before its application.

These five papers presented in this symposium entail an important statistical study of the results, and these can be useful when establishing new university educational policies because of their contribution and the results highly conclusive.


SY EDC (20) 1

MEASURING AND CHANGING ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE TEACHERS.

POLANCO BUENO, Rodrigo; Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico.

A 41 item Likert-type scale was developed in order to aseess attitudes of College teachers toward quality of teaching. The process of atribute definition, item and questionaire development, as well as the procedures for content validation are described. Reliability and item analysis estimetes are reported. The instrument was used to evaluate the effects of a teacher training program on College teacher's attitudes. Results showed significant attitude change in teachers that participated in the training program as compared to teachers who did not. Program effects were consistent across teachers belonging to different academic divisions and status.


SY EDC (20) 2

GRADE REPETITION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: ACADEMIC, GENDER AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN PREVALENCE AND OUTCOMES.

KENNY, Dianna and ADAMS, Roger; Sidney University, NSW, Australia.

The primary and secondary school grade repetition histories of a cohort of 1485 university students were examined to assess long term academic outcomes ofr students who had repeated a grade at school. Although the previously available evidence suggests that grade repetition has few immediate benefits and is a good predictor of high school dropout, the results of this study indicated .hat both primary and secondary school repeaters were represented at university in proportions which were greater than in schools. Of the total sample, 11.2% had repeated a grade between kindergarten and year 12, and of this repeating group 34% had repeated the Higher School Certificate (HSC). Asian students accounted for 38% of HSC repetitions and 53% of all male students' repetitions were for the HSC. Grade repetition as a remedial strategy requires further investigation in light of these findings to determine the characteristics of students who are most likely to benefit from the practice, as well as to elucidate the long term or post-secondary impact of grade repetition on students' academic performance.


SY EDC (20) 3

THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE GPA OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AT MEXICO.

ARIAS-GALICIA, Fernando and BAUM-WOLLENSTEIN, Silvia; National University of México, Mexico.

There is a good deal of research on the impact of socioeconomic factors on the students' gpa. However most of this work has been published at developed countries. Since one of the aims of science is to generalize, it seems relevant to see if results are similar in other countries. This is most important for strategic planning when taking into account the uneven distribution of resources in the population at these countries. Besides, it is important to ascertain whether or not there are similiarities among students from different schools at the same university.

Samples of first semester students were taken from the Schools of Business Administration, Engineering, Medicine and Chemistry from the National University of Mexico. They were administered several tests. A demongraphic questionnaire was also included. In this paper only variables coming from the latter are discussed. Multiple analysis or covariance was applied for analyzing the data.

There were some differences in results from the schools. However, in general, contrary to expectations the fathers' schooling was of no importance. In the school of Medicine, the mothers schooling made a difference for instance. Results are discussed in light of current theories.


SY EDC (20) 4

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS THAT INTERVENE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS AT THE NATIONAL AUTONOMUS UNIVERSITY OF MEXICO (UNAM).

BAUM-WOLLENSTEIN, Silvia; National Autonomus University of México, Mexico.

This project is the inicial phase of an intercollegiate study whose objective is to gain insight of the different influenting factors of performance of university students. Included are four different professional areas withhin the UNAM: Business, Chemestry, Engineering & Medicine.

We completed a battery of tests measuring academic, demographic and psychological backgrounds of freshman students in January 1992. We applied these questionnaires to a cluster random sample, processed the case-studies using Co-variance analysis & Partial Correlation through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to determine the results.

With freshman medical students (N=301), we found the following points interesting:

- MALE STUDENTS PERFORMANCE is higher than women's Students who came from a PRIVATE HIGH SCHOOL have better achievement levels than those who attended public high school.

- Students who WORKED has lower GPA'S than students who do not hold a job.

- A SIGNIFICANT POSITIVE correlation was found among students whose MOTHERS had a higher level of education.

- A SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE correlation was found regarding the TIME CONSUMED travelling to and from campus.

This report is being followed up with information processed of the now sophomore students and will be presented at the 1994 meeting.


SY EDC (20) 5

ENGINEERING STUDENTS' EXPECTATIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE UNIVERSITY CAREER.

GONZÁLEZ TIRADOS, Rosa María; U.P., Madrid, Spain.

To talk about Univesity Students' expectations it is necessary to take into account the strong belief the individual person has that success is directly related to the effort made and, of course, to the outcome obtained and that it is also based on the task accomplished.

By attitudes we understand the feelings the persons show with respect to the way in which they perceive the working atmosphere at University and their own effectiveness in the career. Certain attitudes produce particular patterns of behaviour of the persons in the face of studying, University, the career and the teachers, etc. Expectations very often appear as a result of the level of effort made and the are thus represented in terms of the relationship probability between the effor and the development of a given task.

These reasonings points, easily understood in the process of particular tasks, appear to be much more complicated and confusing if applied to the intellectual efficiency of University students and what is understood by that concept.

When it comes to analysing the reason for success or failure in Engineering careers, we have gauged some variables related to the level of student expectations and its link with the way in which these expectation materialize or not, likewise the influence attitudes have on the study, the career and the result obtained at the end of the first course.

To this end we used as sample a group of 206 first course university students coming from two different Schools.

One of the methods to find out the level of these expectations was a poll, considering diverse answers, in this particular case those related to "self-efficiency" and "self-esteem matters", that is, the fact of how the person relies on personal resourses which should assure a favorable and successful outcome. Attitudes were evaluated through a poll tailored to that purpose.

After the process conclusions hold up and in some cases seem to go along with the opinions and theories of many experts on the subject.


SY EDC (21) 1

A "HUMAN RIGHTS" PERSPECTIVE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACTION THEORY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: THE CHILD AS VOICE FOR SOCIAL CHANGE.

DILLABOUGH, Jo-Anne M.; McGill University, Quebec, Canada.

This paper will discuss the following issues: (1) the types of knowledge Euro-Canadian children possess about "human rights"oriented careers that address the contemporary concerns of First Nations people; (2) the potential action theory has for explaining career choices young people make in an attempt to support First Nations people; (3) the specific role action oriented contexts play in ameliorating children's knowledge about careers that can, arguably, assist Canadian First Nations people in reaching their societal and political goals in a diverse and complex society; and (4) the role that schools, particularly social education, can play in encouraging children to engage in career related activities that lead to an improved political climate for First Nations people. Discussion will center around the impact of dominant models of schooling on children's career development, particularly career development models that impede and fail to support radical social and political change for First Nations people in Canada.


SY EDC (21) 2

GUIDANCE COUNSELLING IN TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO SCHOOL.

POMBENI, Maria Luisa; University of Bologna, Italy.

Studies concerning the pedagogical and psychological effect of discontinuity in the educational system have been made, without taking into consideration the problem of guidance. The growing phenomenon in recent years of school-leavers dropping-out when still in their first years of High School -aged 15/16 and therefore when adolescence is at its peak-demands a further analysis of the problem wich also bears in mind other perspectives.

If one considers the passage between educational cycles as a change in role and social organization, one can note that the student is forced by the impact with his new scholastic environment to re-examine the criteria on wich his previous experience was founded. Putting into this action considerable energy both on a cognitive plane and on a psychological one, he experiences conflicting feelings about the prospect of showing himself worthy of the request made him by the new social organization.

Some results in research have pointed out the main difficulties met by students in the transition periods between educational cycles. The presentation of a model of intervention in schools will endeavour to show how guidance counselling can prevent some forms of scholastic uneasiness and thereby reduce the phenomenon of early school leaving.


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PARENT-ADOLESCENT DISCOURSE ON A CAREER IN A POSTCOMMUNIST SOCIETY.

VALACH, L.; University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

YOUNG, R. A.; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

MANAK, J.; Czech Republic.

The paper follows a twofold goal. Firstly, an action theoretically based research in parent-adolescent discourse on the vocational career of the adolescent will be presented. Secondly, the strategies of parents in these careers who cannot have any conception of the outfit of the immediately following vocational world will be compared to general strategies of societal groups authorized for advice giving in the present society.

An action theoretical view of career and career analysis was developed. In it the relevance of action for career and career for action is specified. Group actions build a center of this conceptualization. The necessity of seeing career processes from the point of view of manifest, internal and societal processes was stressed. Video recorded naturally occurring parent-adolescent discourse related to career issues was analyzed. Additionally self-confrontation interviews aimed at not verbalized cognitions and emotions as well as at unexplicated shared and individual meaning of the discourse process were performed. Some qualitative data of this research will be reported.

Parents in the Czech Republic are facing a particularly difficult situation as they have to give advice valid in a new vocational worid they know nothing about. It will be reported how much their strategies equal the strategies of professionals who are expected to supply adequate interpretations of the future world which changes follow less dynamical patterns. The strategies of modernism and postmodernism will be presented.


SY EDC (21) 4

CAREER CHANGE, PERSONAL CONVERSION AND THE RECOLLECTION OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY IN NEUROTICS OF MORITA THERAPY, "SHUDANKAI".

YANO, Yoshio; Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto, Japan.

Subjects are members of a neurotics voluntary organization of open groups for study, mutual counselling and self-therapy, called "Shudankai" (conversational encounter groups). These groups are a branch of the association of Morita therapy in Japan, the Society of Discovery of Life, and based on Morita's theory of nervosity neurosis. The theory emphasizes self-understanding and insight, acceptance of self as it really is, modification of misunderstanding of human nature, and hence transformation of the self. Many group participants have made changes of their career or lifecourse. They have experienced personal conversion or alteration through monthly Shudankai sessions and the study of Morita theory. The changes have been observed in decreasing the possibility of failures in school or social life, and neurotic breakdowns, and career changes.

Sixteen male and female subjects aged 19-60 years completed questionnaires about their career decisions or changes, modification of their self-concepts and views of life, recollection of their autobiographical and parent-related memories. There were differences of self-reflectivity and retrospectivity of the past event memories among obsessive, anthropophobiac, hypochondriac or anxiety, and depressive types of neurosis. The obsessives were the most self-reflective, and the anthropophobiacs tended to repeat career changes.


SY EDC (21) 5

PARENT-ADOLESCENT CONVERSATIONS ABOUT CAREER DEVELOPMENT: AN ACTION THEORY PERSPECTIVE.

YOUNG, Richard A.; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

An action theory perspective was used to investigate the conversations that parents and adolescents have about career development. The purpose of this research was to examine how parents and adolescents mutually construct the social influence process regarding career in which the intentional, goal-directed behavior of the actors is addressed. The analysis was based on 14 videotaped parent-adolescent career conversations followed by individual playback for parents and adolescents in which their cognitions during the conversation were gathered (the self-confrontation procedure). Subsequently, narratives of the conversations and self-confrontations were validated by the participants individually and jointly. Actions were identified at the individual and joint levels. Individual action was analyzed at the level of intentional frame, goals, functional steps, and actual expressions. The main themes of the joint action analysis involved negotiation and struggle between the actors and exploration of career. The research has implications for the development of meaning in social contexts, the role of interpersonal relationships in career development, and the construction of career itself.


SY EDC (22) 0

CAREER INDECISION AND BARRIERS TO CAREER DECISION MAKING.

Convenor and Chair: VONDRACEK, Fred W.; The Pennsylvania State University, USA.

During the last decade, a great deal of work has been conducted in the area of career decision making. One aspect that has received increasing attention has been the identification and measurement of various dimensions of career indecision. A second, related aspect, has focused on the identitication and conceptualization of barriers to career decision making. The most important work on these topics has been carried out by investigators from several different continents. The purpose of the symposium will be to bring together the major contributors to this field. The specific objectives of the symposium will be to:

1. Examine the current status of the concept of career indecision as it is represented in, and related to, the major career development theories.

2. Review and examine the latest empirical evidence regarding categories or dimensions of career indecision. Among other things, this will entail examination of barriers to career decision making.

3. Address the role of cultural and economic factors that may influence and/or determine the nature of career indecision, aswell as the characteristics of barriers to career decision making.

4. Present and examine intervention strategies that may be designed either to assist individuals in overcoming their career indecision, or to intervene contextually in order to remove situational and/or structural barriers to career decision making.


SY EDC (22) 1

A TAXONOMY OF THE DIFFICULTIES IN MAKING CAREER DECISIONS.

GATI, Itamar; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Individuals often face difficulties in making career decisions. Any deviation from an "ideal career decision maker", defined on the basis of decision and information processing theories, has been regarded as a difficulty or problem in the individual's decision-making. This theoretical analysis combined with empirical findings led to the following taxonomy of problems. The basic distinction is between problems related to the readiness to be engaged in the career decision making process and problems related to the implementation of the career decision making process in a particular context. Within "lack of readiness" the distinction is between immaturity (divided into inadequate orientation towards career decision making and lack of readiness to make a decision) and lack of knowledge regarding how to make career decisions (divided into inadequate perceptions and understanding of the process, and lack of knowledge about the steps involved in the career decision maklng process). Within the problems concerning the "implementation of the career decision making process", the distinction is between lack of information (regarding the self, options, and sources of information) and problems in the utilization of information (divided into the unwillingness to compromise and conflicting preferences). Further refinements will be presented, and empirical support for the proposed model will be described. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the proposed taxonomy will be discussed.


SY EDC (22) 2

CAREER DECISION MAKING IN GERMAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS PROBLEMS AND COPING.

TODT, E.; PRANGE, S. and PREISS, K.; University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Career decision making always is a difficult task for high school students. In recent times however the difficulty increased and it will still increase in the future. Reasons are besides others: The rapid change of major segments of the labour market, high rates of unemployment, consequences of the unique age structure of the German population and increase of competition of high school students in the labour market because of rapid changes of the educational aspirations of their peers and because of the opening of the European market. To analyze the subjective reactions of high school students on these external conditions we investigated two cohorts of students of the same region in 1989 and in 1993. We were interested in the stability and change of career orientation (problems and coping) in the last three years of high school attendance. As consequence of this empirical analysis we tried to develop a device to help high school students to optimize their career decision strategy and to become competent for new career orientations if these should be necessary in the future.

Both aspects: Problems of career decision making of these two cohorts of students and approaches of (self initated and external initated) coping with these problems will be reported and discussed at the symposion.


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CAREER INDECISION OF JAPANESE STUDENTS: METHODOLOGICAL AND EMPIRICAL FINDINGS.

SHIMIZU, K.; Kansai University, Osaka, Japan.

VONDRACEK, F. W.; Penn. State University, USA.

A review of research on the dimensionality of the Career Decision Scale (CDS) reveals that there continue to be disagreements as to whether it measures general indecision or several distinct dimensions of indecision. Based on methodological insights gained from using the CDS wtih American students, Shimizu constructed 16 subscales, containing 5 items each, to measure various aspects of educational and vocational indecision in Japanese junior high school students. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in six factors: Decision Anxiety, Educational Conflict, Vocational Conflict, Seeking Counsel, Moratorium, and External Control. After establishing factorial invariance across gender, six factorial sales of career indecision dimensions were constructed and administered to a large sample of junior high school students over a three year period. Longitudinal results were analyzed by means of repeated ANOVAs. Results of the Shimizu Scales of Career Indecision are compared with findings from Shimoyana's research with college students using the Vocational Indecision Scale (with subscales measuring Confusion, Immaturity, Calmness, Moratorium, Exploration, and Decision) and the Identity Achievement Scale (with subscales of Certainty, Activity, Acceptance, Control, Identity, and Intimacy).


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SOME COGNITIVE IMPEDIMENTS TO VOCATIONAL DECISION MAKING: THREE DECADES OF FACT AND ARTIFACT.

HAASE, Richard F.; State University of New York, Albany, USA.

Cognition, and its derivative psychological states, has played a central role in theories of decision making for many years. Cognitive science has also made substantial contributions, either implictly or explictly, to the development of virtually all theories of vocational decision making. Clearly cognition must be a necessary, but not sufficient, ingredient in the formulation of successful vocational decisions. We review here a variety of cognitive theories of decision making with specific reference to impediments to career decision making and vocational choice. Ideas emanating from the work of Kelly (1955), Tverksy (1972), Skinner (1959), von Neumann and Morgenstern (1947) and shannon and Weaver (1949) are reviewed in the context of successful and unsuccessful vocational decisions. Cognitive barriers to the successful resolution of vocational choice are exemplified by three decades of fact and artifact in the research on cognitive complexity and vocational decision making. The work of Bodden and his colleagues (1972, 1973, 1979), based on cognitive complexity (Bieri et al., 1965; Kelly, 1955), has important theoretical implications for the process and outcome of vocational choice. Recent evidence is presented that illustrates why cognitive complexity has not been more strongly related to important vocational process and outcome criteria. Directions for future research and implications for the practice of vocational counseling are articulated.


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PIR, Tara; California School of Professional Psychology, U.S.A.

SCHOOL-BASED MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: CULTURE SENSITIVE APPROACHES TO PRIMARY PREVENTION


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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES FOR ASIAN AMERICANS: COLLABORATION BETWEEN SCHOOL, COMMUNITY, AND FAMILY.

HONG, George K.; California State University, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Asian Americans are often extremely reluctant to seek psychological services, regarding such facilities to be designed for the "mentally ill" or "severely disturbed". When they have family, life, or adjustment problems, they prefer to turn to traditional resources, such as relatives for help. While unfamiliarity with the mental health field is a major issue, cultural considerations such as stigmatization and familism are also serious barriers.

Proroviding mental health services in schools located in the community helps to overcome the above barriers. The school is an institution which most people are familiar with. It is also an ideal settings for identifying individuals or families with needs, as it has contact with practically all families with children. Traditional respect for educators in Asia also helps to maike their recommendations for psychological services more palatable to the student and parents.

This presentation will critically examine the issues involved in designing school-based mental health services for Asian Americans, including the collaboration between school and community agencies, the roles of interdisciplinary providers, and the new skills required from the psvchologists. These will be discussed along with illustrations from the presenter's clinical work with this population.


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COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONALLY-BASED COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS FOR THE PROMOTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH AMONGST CULTURALLY DIVERSE TEENAGE STUDENTS.

MITCHELL, Paul; City of Westminster College, London, England.

Traditionally, many systems of help to students in the field of education have tended to become compartmentalised. This, has meant the increasing trend of "specilisation", "professionalization", and, in many cases, "institutionalisation" of services to the young in education, which have unwittingly had the effect of moving away from their real educative and social needs.

Intervention and remedial work still forms a large part of the work done by professionals in this field. However, there is a growing trend to instigate better, and more efficient systems of preventative and collaborative work, which will necessarily have to be based at the cutting edge of the young student's educative experience, within the school or college itself. It is perhaps no coincldence that a large part of this change has been forced upon educators by the rationalisation of resources to education as a whole.

This paper will compare and contrast the resources available to school or college-based students in two large cosmopolitan and culturally diverse western cities, Los Angeles and London.


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THE KIT PROGRAM (KIDS IN TOUCH): APPROACHES TO PRIMARY PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE.

ROBERTS, David L.; California School of Professional Psychology, Alhambra, USA.

School based mental health offers an opportunity to develop programs that address the needs of families victimized by violence. One such program is the KIT Program (KIDS IN TOUCH) which is implemented in two phases.

Phase I targets fifth and sixth grade students identified at high risk for future involvement in potentially violent activities. Children are taught in groups of 15 to think differently about violence, highlighting their opportunities to influence the thinking of others. Groups are offered for six weeks in both English and Spanish. Students are publicly graduated as "KIT Cadets", and are commissioned as ambassadors of peace.

Phase II targets third and fourth grade students, using a two-day classroom presentation format. In both phases, children are taught to identify violence experienced in their homes and on their playgrounds, in addition to the larger scale violence portrayed in the media. Subjective experiences of the students provide the course material. Feelings associated with violence are identified, and alternatives and solutions are generated.

In this presentation the KIT Program will be described, including target populations and criteria for participation. Program implementation will also be addressed, to include training of facilitators/instructors.


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TREATING "AT RISK" HISPANIC CHILDREN AND FAMILIES IN SCHOOLS: APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY AT ITS BEST.

SORIANO, Marcel; Center for Collaboration for Children and Families, California State University, Los Angeles, USA.

This paper presentation will provide participants with an empirical and practical look at the growing Hispanic population in the United States, and specifically the increasing percentage of Hispanics identified as being "at risk" for drug and alcohol abuse, and gang violence. The presentation will include an overview of cultural and socio-economic characteristics of Hispanics and other ethnic minorities who are in "high risk" situations, as well as a summary report of research on "Mission Possible," a school-based mental health model implemented in San Francisco and Los Angeles, California.

Participants will also receive complete summaries of the research conducted by Dr. Soriano and colleagues from the California Commission on Teacher Credentials and the American Psychological Association's Commission on Violence.


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SCHOOL-BASED MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: CULTURE-SENSITIVE APPROACHES TO PRIMARY PREVENTION.

PIR, Tara; California School of Professional Psychology, Institute for Multicultural Counseling & Education Services, USA.

This presentation will provide participants with a clear theoretical and applied description of the concept of "school-based mental health" (SBMH) services and its contributions to psychology and the advancement of primary prevention. The presentation will also highlight the rationale for its significance as the single most significant means by which Hispanics, Middle Eastern, Asian and other under served populations are beginning to access mental health services in American Society.

School-based and school-linked mental health services can be thought of as a way to bridge the world of a traditional, albeit changing psychology, with the needs of an ever changing world. This is more so with respect to the needs of children, youth and families of color who have been traditionally under served. SBMH is synergistic and offers a new vitality for the professional applied psychologist. It does so by effecting change in the personal identity of the psychologist, and helps him/her become more attuned to culturally and linguistically diverse clients and their needs.

Participants in this presentation will learn the "nuts and bolts" of school-based mental health services, including training and supervision issues, as well as the ethical and practical requirements for successful programs. A brief videotaped presentation will provide participants with a "real look" at an actual program.


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LEARNIG STRATEGIES, METACOGNITIVE ACTIVITY AND TEACHING THINKING.

Convener: GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, Javier; Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

During the last years, teaching thinking has received an increasing attention. The main reviews in this field (Chipman, Segal and Glaser, 1985; Nickerson, Perkins and Smith, 1985; Segal, Chipman and Glaser, 1985; Baron and Sternberg, 1987; Vye, Delclos, Burns and Bransford, 1988; González Marqués, 1991; etc.) have pointed out different criteria to clasify the proposed programs. As a whole, we can consider two kinds: general and specific programs. The former are aimed to enhance the complete cognitive performance; the latter are centered on concrete cognitive abilities. Learning strategies and metacognitive activity are two closely interrelated concepts which are implied in both kinds of programs.

Our proposal in this symposium is the precission of these concepts, the description of strategies and programs and thepresentation and validation of applications in this area as a mean to improve theoretical and applied knowledge on this topic.


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COGNITIVE SKILLS AND LEARNING PROCEDURES IN MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT.

BARBERÁ GREGORI, Elena;

In the frame of an ecological investigation with mathematical teachers and their pupils aged 11 and 12, the nature and the state of the written evaluation are assessed combining two basical ideas:

a) the way teachers assess pupils determines, as a consequence, a certain approach to study and learning;

b) written evaluation is understood as a summary of teacher's main aim, therefore, contents the pupil has to learn.

Aa far as the implicit level is concerned and through exam statements, evaluation works on series of cognitive skills - infering, organizing, verifying,... - and learning procedures - comparative analysis, stimulations, autointerrogations - which are to be presented in an aware and enough varied way to promote a complete and functional learning.

Real evaluating programs assess the presence and the absence of these cognitive skills and learning procedures as well as the possible causes of this fact. Alternative proposals are displayed in order to make teachers aware of their performance and to allow an strategical approach of the evaluation process.


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THE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN WRITING COMPOSITION: A PROPOSAL TO TEACH LEARNING STRATEGIES TO ORGANIZE AND TO REGULATE THE COMPOSITION PROCESS.

CASTELLÓ BADIA, Montserrat;

The aim of this investigation was to teach learning strategies in writing composition.

Firstly, a critical revision of learning strategies' conceptual framework was made, and a new strategic approach was proposed, which is more related to the constructivist model in education.

Secondly, models explaining the cognitive processes involved in writing composition were studied with the aim of displaying their basic assumptions.

In our research the different ways of teaching the strategies in writing composition were assessed. 11 classrooms with 293 students from 6 schools, and 6 teachers participated in the study. Three instructional proposals for teach learning strategies in writing composition were assessed.

The outcomes showed that the students who learned strategies to organize the process of composition and those related with the regulation of this process (metacognition) write the best compositions and know more about their own composition process.


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A PROGRAM OF COGNITIVE MODIFICABILITY APPLIED TO PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.

DÍEZ LÓPEZ, Eloisa; GARCÍA JIMÉNEZ, M. Visitación and ROMÁN PÉREZ, Martiniano;

Intellectual modificability is defended by a number of authors framed within information processing paradigm (Detterman, 1982; Hunt, 1973; Sternberg, 1984).

Vigotsky (1934) defends the field of proximal development in a socio-historical framework where learning preced development. Feuerstein (1980) considers intelligence as a complex interaction between the organism that learns end the environment, and postulated the mediated learning as a crucial factor.

We believe, following Sternberg (1981, 1986) that the performance in a reasoning task requires from the subject to posses various cognitive abilities, dexterities and estrategies, the latter ones as necessary processes to reach the former.

Based on that, we present a program that includes a series of abilities and dexterities in order to train children in the development of basic intellectual capabilities.

The program is adressed to primary school students and includes the procedure to develope different capabilities (Inductive Reasoning, Predeductive Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, Sinthesize-globalize, Tempo-Spatial Orientation...) by training a large set of abilities.


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THE METACOGNITIVE DIALOGUE AS A WAY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING HOW TO THINK.

GARCÍA GARCÍA, E.; GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J. and MAYOR, J.; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Cognition is a complex activity which involves the working procedures and the subjects' motivation in the task. Metacognition means the knowledge of the subject's about his own cognitive system and the strategies he uses to improve and regulate his execution in the activity.

The development of metacognition is a fundamental variable to distinguish between the students or the teachers with or without success in their activity. Good students know and control better their motivations and attitudes during a task: they also make a plan and an evaluation of their execution; and they count with their resources when they face an activity.

Human being can, because of his metacognitive capacity, reflect, evaluate himself and improve his skills. The reflection and the process of selfquestion become stronger when it takes place in the context of a group or a research community. We call this method metacognitive dialogue. The metacognitive dialogue allows us to know and improve our mental activity: knowledge, procedures, attitudes. The metacognitive dialogue method that we expose count with three types of variables: personal variables, task variables and context variables.


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METACOGNITION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE.

GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J.; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The aim of this paper is to present the Symposium on Learning Strategies, metacognitive activity and teaching how to think. In this sense, it defines the common theoretical frame for the different papers included in the symposium and determines the order in which they are going to be presented according to the main aspects of this frame.


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A PROGRAM TO IMPROVE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: PROMERENCO (PROGRAMA PARA LA MEJORA DEL RENDIMIENTO COGNITIVO).

GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J.; MAYOR, J. and GARCÍA GARCÍA, E.; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

In this paper we present a general program to improve cognitive performance, PROMERENCO, based on the concept of human activity (Mayor, 1984, 1985, 1991; Mayor, Suengas y González Marqués, 1993). Four main aspects are taken into account to organize the intervention program and systematize the tasks: learning strategies, metacognitive activity, cognition and variables which affect the activity.

Learning strategies may be considered in three main categories according to the learning components: metacognition, cognition and motivation; metacognitive activity has three main dimensions, consciousness, control and autopoiesis; cognition is considered according three basic dimensions, components, tasks and moods; at last, variables may be grouped in relation to the three main dimensions of human activity, subject, activity and context.

Orthogonal combination of the different values in each dimension provides the basic aspects in which the program is involved. The development of tasks in each resultant cell is the main remaining activity to complete the program.


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EXHAUSTIVE BINARY DIVISION AS HEURISTIC TO ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION.

MAYOR, J.; GONZÁLEZ MARQUÉS, J. and MAZO, S.; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

LÓPEZ JIMÉNEZ, G.; Universidad Valle, Cali, Colombia.

MELLO, R.; Universidad de Maringá, Brazil.

Text comprehension may be understood as a continuum from superficial to deep comprehension. The limits in this continuum are fuzzy and the level reached depends on the reader's purposes. Using comprehension strategies becomes more interesting each time to advance along this dimension towards the deepest limit.

The aim in this paper is text the explanation and empirical support to text analysis by means of the exhaustive binary division strategy. Each text may be divided into two main parts, each of one could be divided again in another two parts and go on. According to this heuristic, the bynary division of texts implies the deepest analysis of text content in each level.

To prove empirically the effectivenes of this strategy two paired groups of Psychology students were used, Experimental group recieved specific instruction to use this heuristic, the control group was asked for analysis of texts while training. Post-treatment evaluation shined significative differences between both groups.


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CONCEPT MAPS AS A LEARNING STRATEGY FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

PÉREZ CABANÍ, María Luisa and Monereo Font, Carlos;

Objectives of the investigation: The objective of this research is to study the theme of learning strategies through the investigation of how affect in the quality of university students' learning when they received instruction in concept maps. The research studies the different ways of using concept maps by the students and their incidence in the students' learning process and its quality.

Theory frame of the investigation: The theory frame of this investigation is the Cognitive Psychology and the different contributions of many authors about the learning process and the strategies of this process. The research analyzes the different investigations about the teaching and the uses of concept maps.

Empiric research: It is designed a quasi-experimental method with university students (Educational Psychology, teaching students, in a secondary year) in three groups: control, experimental 1 (teaching in the use of concept maps), experimental 2 (teaching in the regulative use of concept maps) and in four stages: initial evaluation, intervention, final evaluation and delay evaluation (after two months of the end of the intervention).

Conclusions and new perspectives: About teaching the learning procedures, it is confirmed:

- The importance of the guidance and the mediation of the teacher in the construction of knowledge about learning procedures.

- It's necessary to teach the regulative use of learning procedures in the curriculum in order to increase the significative learning.

About the regulative use of the learning procedures, it's confirmed:

- The relationship between learning process and the quality of the outcome learning.

- The regulative use of the concept maps increase the regulative use of another learning procedures.

About the use and the transfer of concept maps, it is confirmed:

- The usefull of concept maps in order to increase the students' learning, that means, it is usefull to go with their teaching.

- Finally, this research observed, in the two experimental groups, maintence and the transfer in the use of concept maps in different situations, but there are no significative dates between them about the level and the kind of this transfer.


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UNDERSTANDING LEARNING.

RÍOS CABRERA, Pablo; Universidad Pedagógica, Caracas, Venezuela.

There seems to be an agreement as to the importance and pertinence of the metacognitive approach as a pedagogical altenative. However, there remain several difficulties regarding its implementation. Within this perspective, in the case of teaching of reading, it is common to promote not only the comprehension of text contents and the use of comprehension strategies but also, and more basically, the awareness of the strategies used in comprehending. This paper presents the implementation of a proposal aimed at improving reading comprehension, under a metacognitive approach. The proposal is embodied in three books for 7th, 8th and 9th grades of Venezuelan Basic School. The criterian used in the selection ol topics and in the design of the texts were, among others, students' interests, congruence of topic with students' background knowledge, recentness of topic and importance of topic for students' formation. Metacognition was operacionalized in seven aspects which recur in the literature: activation of previous knowledge, setting of objectives, defining an action plan, determining important aspects, detecting problems, evaluating results and applying what has been learned. The paper also describes teacher and student activities before, during and after reading. Finally, research carried out to evaluate and validate the materials is described.