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NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY: FACTORS FACILITATING AND IMPENDING PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Convener: ADAIR, John G.; University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
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FACILITATORS AND DETERRENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF GRADUATE RESEARCH TRAINING.
DIAZ LOVING, Rolando; REYES-LAGUNES, Isabel and DIAZ-GUERRERO, Rogelio; National Autonomus University of Mexico, Mexico, Mexico.
The role that graduate research training plays in the development of a national discipline in developing countries will be discussed with reference to the role it has played in psychology in Mexico. Psychology in Mexico can be traced to the clinical practice conducted by the Aztecs, through the ethnographic descriptions made during the colonial and postcolonial eras, to a modern psychology strongly rooted in both a universal perspective imported from the United States and Europe and a historically profound and consolidating idiosyncratic ethnopsychological movement based on local research. The mainstream of Mexican psychology, prevalent in the second half of the XXth century, has a practical-professional orientation with a mystical belief in the validity of theoretical principles, which has led to the use and abuse of psychological premises with few attempts to evaluate their impact or to pursue further research. This anti-research bias is probably the main deterrent of the advancement of the research discipline. Among the main facilitators of development has been the training in foreign Ph.D. programs of several generations of Mexican psychologists, the endogenous development of graduate research programs within the country, which have been based upon the growing belief that science and social sciences in particular are needed in Mexican society to solve some of the problems of national growth and development, and the persistence of a still small but very active group of Mexican researchers. Specific issues related to graduate research training for developing countries are discussed.
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INTELLECTUAL CLIMATE AND RESOURCES: INFLUENCES OF THE RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISCIPLINE.
ADAIR, John G.; University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
The resources and intellectual climate for research are generally regarded as important determinants of quality scholarly work. Within the context of a national discipline, these factors play important roles in facilitating and impeding its development. Peer review and feedback and productive role models help to shape new investigators, and thereby determine the course of the discipline. A strong professional association and quality journal editing set and maintain the standards for the discipline. The availability of journals and other resources, academic performance evaluations and accountability, and the reward system for research activity all contribute to an environment which encourages identification with the science and a commitment to research. In contrast, the absence of these factors results in a diminishing commitment that contaminates the intellectual climate and has serious consequences for the entire discipline. Consideration of the intellectual climate and the strategies to foster its development in developing countries must give special consideration to the collectivistic nature of some cultures.
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SYSTEMATIC CONSIDERATIONS: FACTORS FACILITATING AND IMPEDING DISCIPLINE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
LEUNG, Kwok and ZHANG, Jian-Xin; Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
Several major factors that influence the development of psychology in developing countries are explored. It is argued that in developing countries, because of the scarcity of resources and the widespread desire to modernize, the perceived applied value of psychology has a major impact on its development. Both student preference for choosing psychology as a major and the allocation of funding to psychology departments to some extent reflect its perceived applied value. Funding for research projects follows the same pattern. Applied projects are easier to obtain funding than basic research. The second factor is whether psychology is seen as a source of basic knowledge for other more applied fields, such as social work. If administrators hold this view, the funding for psychology departments will be more generous. The third factor is whether psychology is recognized as a profession. Psychology is likely to develop more rapidly if people with other backgrounds are not allowed to practice psychology. The professional status of psychology is easier to establish if applied psychology programs are set up to train professional psychologists. Finally, it is argued that the relative status of psychology in relation to other social sciences is determined by these three factors. These arguments are illustrated with the development of psychology in Hong Kong and China.
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PSYCHOLOGY, SCIENCE, AND CULTURE: CROSS-CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
KIM, Uichol; Kim; Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, U.S.A.
Psychological science, as conceived and practiced in the West, is assumed to be a value-free, universal, and objective search for Truth. Psychology, in actual practice, can be characterized as being deeply intenneshed with Euro American cultural valucs that champion rational, libcral, individualistic, and abstract ideals. Psychological science can be thus charilcterized as being value-laden, context-dependent, culture-bound enterprise (Kim & Bcrry, 1993).
When psychology is transported to, and transplanted in, other countries, American beliefs and practices that promote competitive, individualistic, and commercial mentality become explicit and clash with indigenous value systems. In the United States, the free exchange of ideas is valued and ideas are purportedly evaluated through public, open, and compelitive avenues. This belief affects how conferences are organized, research collaborations are developed, research are funded, and publications are accepted. Governing procedures, rules, by-laws, constitntions, and or~ani~ation structure, however, reflect Euro American cultural norms and are not universally applicable or acceptable.
The clash of culture becomes readily apparent in East Asia. With the phellomenal economic achievements, East Asian researchers now have the necessary resources, skills, ability, and confidence to articulate the limitation of General psychology and delineate alternative theoretical and methodological perspectives. In East Asia, human relationships, that can be characterized as being virtue-based rather than rights-based, occupy the center stage. Individuals are considered to be linked in a web of interrelatedness and ideas are exchanged through established social networks. Establishing trust and cordial working relationship are prerequisites for the free exchange of idea. The present author contends that psychological science is a cultural enterprise that must examine its implicit assumptions and integrate with other worldviews in developing a truly universal psychological science.
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PSYCHOLOGY OF MORALITY.
Convener: AYMAN, Iraj; Institute of Intemational Education and Development, Switzerland.
Accelerated pace of change engulfing all aspects of life, conflicts caused by interaction of cultures and belief systems due to increasing migration and dispersement of people across the globe, development of new knowledge causing the rejection of old practices, have resulted in fundamental transformation of behaviour patterns and have bewildered community leaders. Moral values are seriously affected by the disintegration of social structures and the paralysis of social institutions. The need for revitalizing morality is felt in every country and at all strata of society.
A new field of psychological research and application that is now emerging and is structuraliy related to national development is psychology of morality. Psychologists are faced with a variety of demands on their expertise. They are expected to investigate such problematics as nature of moral behaviour, factors affecting ethical behaviour, root causes of ethical decadence, universality of moral values methodology for improving the moral standards of the adult population and for effective moral education of children and youth.
The aim of the proposed symposium is to provide a forum for psychologists, who are either involved or seriously interested in studies related to morality and moral behaviour, to present their findings, exchange views, start networking and plan further scientific activities in this field.
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MIMESIS, MOVEMENT AND CONTEXT IN MORAL EDUCATION.
LAGMAY, Alfredo V.; University of the Philippines, Philippines.
Aristotle's concept of mimesis, imitation, in dramatic poetry has a significance beyond catharsis as aesthetic principle. Another reading of the Poetics indicates that mimesis is closer than we realize to many therapeutic procedures in modern psychology ---- in ways that are very much related to moral education.
The basic idea in mimesis seems to be action and movement, or rehearsal, in context, which are also important elements in psychodrama, modelling techniques, visualization procedures, or, more generally, of behavior therapy, psychoanalysis, and many variations of the "talking cure." These present-day methods of the clinic are also used in various ways in education as rehearsal forms articulated through a story or contextual framework, such as the dialogue, the drama, group discussions, and encounter groups.
This is in contrast to didactic methods by rules, regulations, sermons, ethical codes, abstract discourse, exhortations, or information dissemination, which, by their very nature, lack the essential component of rehearsal in context.
We discuss very briefly a program in the learning of values and ethical conduct by rehearsal or experience in real or simulated situations that are meaningful --- all in the spirit of a knowledgeable, humanistic view of the moral life.
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CHINESE YOUNG ADULTS' VALUES ACROSS REGIONS AND GENDER.
AYMAN, Roya and JACKSON, Deborah; Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
Eleven regions of People's Republic of China were included in a 1990 survey. One thousand seven hundred twenty high school seniors (age 17 - 19) responded to the survey. The survey was developed by an international team of researchers. The values included were identified by the Chinese colleagues. There were 34 values. Three of them were self interest values (honesty, self-esteem, and self-control). The fourth one was a composite score of preferences on social values (helping, consideration, openness, and respect). The fifth value was labeled as a globalism. A manova was conducted where the five values were the dependent variables and the respondents sex and region were the independent variables. The results showed that, while young men and women in China in each region do not vary in their values, across all regions there is a significant difference found between men and women. Also, among the regions there is a difference in the values respondents held important. More specifically, the univariate F for gender was significant for self-control and social values at p<.01 and for self-esteem and globalism at p<.05. The results for self-control and social values also differed across regions at p<.01.
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CHINESE ADOLESCENTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMY.
AYMAN-NOLLEY, Saba; Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
JACKSON, Deborah; Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
In the Western developmental Psychology, Adolescence has been considered as a unique distinguishable period of life. This distinction has been based on physical, psychological and social changes attributed to the period usually covered by ages 10-18. One of the most-supported findings has been the increased development of independence and autonomy during these years of life. Children move from identifying themselves as extensions of their parents to becoming an independent self. In the Western society, this is an adaptive change, since individuality and independence is one of the primary goals of development. Is such a phenomenon truly universal? Do all children during these ages become more independent, regardless of their cultural value system?.
To address these questions, this presentation will examine data collected in People's Republic of China in 1990 from 5000 Chinese adolescents ages 11-18 in relation to their attitudes and behaviors about their independence. The paper will present the description of Chinese adolescents' attitude and behavior towards independence, contrasting early with middle and late adolescence. These results will be discussed in contrast to that of other cultures in order to examine the universality of the notion of increased independence during adolescence.
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EXPLORING THE PREDICTIVE UTILITY OF VALUES IN TRUST: THE CHINESE CASE.
YIK, Michelle S. M.; University of British Columbia, Canada.
TANG, Catherine S. K.; Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Values, as relatively stable criteria for people to use to judge their own and others' behaviors, are proposed to be employed in studying group stereotypes which could be predictive of specific behaviors toward that particular group. The above paradigm was tested with subjects from Hong Kong who were studied how their trust toward a typical Mainland Chinese male was predicted by their perception of his value priorities. A comprehensive value survey tapping 10 value domains and a trust scale tapping 3 trust factors in relationship were used. Different correspondence patterns between the trust factors and the 10 value domains were observed in the male and female subsamples respectively: Dependability was predicted by Benevolence in both groups; Predictability was predicted by Conformity and Security in the male group and by Benevolence in the female group; Faith was predicted by Conformity and Stimulation in the male group, whereas none of the value domains contributed a significant portion of variance in predicting Faith in the female group. Implications of this research for the role of values in predicting interpersonal behaviors are discussed and further research directions are proposed.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA.
SALAZAR, Jose Miguel; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
In considering the factors impeding the development of the discipline in Latin America, emphasis must be given to infra-structural conditions like the availability of journals and bibliographic materials, both for research and adequate post-graduate training. But also important is the lack of social, economic and political stability; that leads to inadequate administrative and financial support for research. The high degree of uncertainty as to thc future of societal outcomes, although incorporated within the ethos of the society, leads to shortterm planning; and weakens the possibility of sustained lines of research.
Yet, the same situation of long standing economic and political crisis and has positive consequences: the growing awareness of social problems and the realization of the possible utility of psychology in their solutions, has made for job opportunities for graduates and their incorporation to governmental departments, during certain periods of the political evolution; and the generation of an "engaged" professional, whose theoretical lucubrations are helping the emergence of an indigenous brand of psychology.
The growing participation of Latin American psychologists ininternational congresses, particularly those of the Interamerican Society of Psychology has had a very laudatory effect on the development of the discipline.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPL\/IENT OF PSYCHOLOGY IN EGYPT AND THE ARAB WORLD.
ABOU-HATAB, Fouad A-L.H.; Faculty of Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Critical analysis of the march of Arab and Egyptian Psychology was initiated in early eighties. The diagnosis of the case has striking similarities with other Third World nations as shown by the following symptoms: 1) Export-import relationship with Western psychology, 2) Cognitive dependency, 3) Severing the relationship with national heritage, 4) Conceptual fads and irrelevancy, 5) Inhibition of creative psychological thinking, and 6) Loss of national identity and misuse.
What about the future? the answer to this question depends on the deliberate efforts to redirect the concept of development in the Third World to be enda,eenous. In this regard, some requirements are discussed in terms of modern development, namely:
1) The liberation of the concept of development from the "rnodernization" model which requires the Westernizing processes,
2) The creative interaction between national herita,ee and contemporary needs,
3) The wise perception of the dangers implied in the dependency relationship for both exporter and importer.
4) The development of research strategies, assumptions, models, theories, methods, and instruments (including tests) that are relevant to the national culture, and
5) The emphasis on the corrective and remedial aspects of science. Just understanding and control are not enough.
However, Western perspective should not be excluded from any serious effort to form new national paradigms for psychology. What is needed is more cultural analysis and wise synthesis.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN.
NSAMENANG, Bame A.; University of Yaounde I (E.N.S.), Bamenda, Cameroon.
This paper examines the factors that impede and facilitate the development of scientific psychology in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite enormous diversity, countries of this sub-continent display remarkable similarity in the emergence and slow establishment of psychology as a professional discipline, a fledgling science at best. Through imported into the continent by Westerners, psychology is increasingly in the hands of Africans. However, lack of full recognition and public unawareness of its usefulness, insufficient funds, embryonic infrastructures, small numbers of psychologists, insensitivity to eco-cultural realities, overorientation towards Eurocentric thinking modalities and modus operandi, poor incentives for scholarship, and Africa's second-class image in the scientific community are among the major factors that impede progress in psychology in Africa.
Nevertheless, given adequate resources and technology, African psychologists by virtue of their multi-cultural cognitive repertoires incidental to the acculturative impact of exposure to alien cultures could make tremedous progress in psychology. This could be facilitated by the fact that Africa's political and socioeconomic systems present a wider range of ecological and sociocultural factors that promise broader theoretical perspectives and novel methodological approaches than industrialized societies. In addition, a growing disillusionment with "alien frames" and a desire to outgrow them can also enhance progress.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY IN INDIA.
SINHA, Jai B. P. ; Institute of Social Studies, Patna, India.
Indian psychology has been rapidly expanding. The number of psychologists, institutions offering courses in psychology, research publications, and journals are increasing. However, the bulk of research remains replicative and imitative. There is slow and gradual increase in problem oriented and culture sensitive research carried out by a small minority of front runners who are constrained by the lack of intellectual and professional support, infra-structure deficiencies, and inadequate financial and human resources. Together they cause daily hassles which hardly leave any energy in many for sustained research of high standard. The paper traces the roots of these proximate impedients to three major predisposing factors: Pervasive poverty, excessive political interference and government control, and social values and practices in India. The new policy of the government together with the awareness of Indian, psychologists of the societal demands and their roles, it is hoped, are likely to create a conducive condition for faster growth of "appropriate" psychology in India.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CHINA.
JING, Qicheng; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
A study indicated that the development of psychology depends upon the economic development of a nation. China, a developing country with a large population and low GNP per capita, requires time and resources to develop the science of psychology. Efforts have to be made to promote the recognition of psychology as a science in China.
For psychology to be recognized and accepted by the scientific community more studies should be conducted on topics that reveal universal rules of human behavior rather than on indigenous aspects of behavior. Applied researches that have direct implications on economic growth and human welfare are needed for psychology to take root in national development. In recent years many young psychologists are leaving the country and take residence in developed countries, this brain drain problem has to be solved. Financial support for research as well as for training of psychologists are of urgent need to promote the development of psychology in China.
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HOW SIMILAR ARE INDIVIDUAL VALUE HIERARCHIES AROUND THE WORLD?.
SCHWARTZ, Shalom H.; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
This presentation summarizes data on value priorities from about 25,000 respondents in more than 40 countries around the world. It points to many common elements in the hierarchies of value priorities of individuals in most countries. These pan-cultural commonalities in value hierarchies provide a baseline to which the value priorities observed in particular cultural, national, and social groups can be compared. Unless the baseline is taken into account, interpretations of the value hierarchies of any specific group are likely to be mistaken. Researchers may conclude that a group attributes an unusually high or low degree of importance to particular values, based on the groups' own hierarchy; but comparisons with the baseline may suggest different conclusions.
Specifically, I will present the hierarchical ordering that is typically found for the comprehensive set of 10 motivational types of values distinguished in my values theory: Benevolence, Conformity, Tradition, Security, Power, Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Self-Direction, and Universalisrn. I will also discuss the extent to which the importance of these value types varies across groups. For example, Benevolence values (emphasizing concern for the welfare of in-group members) emerge as the most important value type in most groups, and they are rarely rated lower than third in importance. In contrast, Hedonism values (emphasizing sensuous gratification) range in importance from the top to near the hottom of value hierarchies across groups. Possible reasons for the pan-cultural commonalities and differences in value priorities will be considered.
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VALUES, NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION, AND INGROUP FAVOURITISM.
FEATHER, Norman T.; The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
What kinds of values would one expect to be associated with strong identification with a nation and with favoring the products and achievements of the nation? The answer to this question would depend on which nation is being investigated and on other variables such as how national values are determined, how comparative measures of achievement are obtained, which segments of the population are sampled, and when measurements are taken. This presentation will describe ways in which research into the value correlates of national identification and ingroup favoritism might be conducted. The results of a recent Australian study will be presented that involved measures of value types, identification with Australia, and a measure of subjects' preference for the products and achievements of Australia when compared with those of other countries. The results of the investigation will be related to other studies of Australian value systems and to recent attempts by social identity theorists to relate ingroup favoritism within a relational context to collectivist values.
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THE STRUCTURE AND MEANING OF VALUES AND POLITICAL ORIENTATION.
ROS, Maria; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Three theoretical models, Rokeach 1973, Inglehart 1977 & 1991 and Schwartz 1992, are tested to study the relation between the structure and meaning of values and political orientation. A sample of 539 subjects from three urban industrial sites in Spain answered Schwartz's SVS questionnaire on personal values. The structure and meaning of personal and social values were analysed through SSA in relation to voting and non-voting behaviour and to political orientation (right-left; nationalism-non-nationalism).
The main results seem to validate the universal structure of Schwartz's model in regard to personal and social valu es. The results also enable us to understand why Rokeach's theory on the value freedom was not validated in this study.
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BEYOND ROKEACH'S EQUALITY-FREEDOM MODEL: TWO DIMENSIONAL VALUES IN A ONE DIMENSIONAL WORLD.
BRAITHWAITE, Valerie A.; Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
This paper supports Rokeach's (1973) two-value model of political ideology through the validation of two value orientation scales, international harmony and equality and national strength and order. Drawing on data from five samples, these value orientations are shown to be independent and robust and predictably related to other value constructs, social attitudes, voting behavior and political activism. The two dimensional model is reconciled with the ubiquitous left-right attitudinal continuum through differentiating between the psychological world of ideas and the political world of action. Political institutions have traditionally imposed a trade-off mentality on decision making behavior, and the left-right dichotomy is a useful heuristic for making trade-offs when other options are not apparent. This paper argues that individuals adopt a framework that is different from that imposed by political institutions. Their framework allows both security conscious and protective values to be held alongside humanitarian and sharing values, and their liberalismconservatism can be predicted by the degree to which one value orientation outweighs the other. The middle ground on liberalism-conservatism, therefore, is not the sole domain of the politically naive or disinterested: It is also the domain of those with balanced, yet strong social value commitments.
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MULTIPLE VALUE SYSTEMS.
SELIGMAN, Clive; The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
A working assumption of much research on values is that an individual's value system is fairly stable and difficult to change. Since values are the standards that the self uses to make judgements and justify itself, the stability of value systems is necessary to express the coherence of the self over time and situations. The implication is that individuals have a single, coherent value system that serves the above purposes. An alternative view would suggest that the value system we construct is very much dependent on the context in which we are asked to do it (general principles, abortion, actual/ought self-states). Our research suggests that we have multiple value systems. For example, we have shown that the patterns of values associated with different value systems, e.g., general principles vs. abortion, are differentially effective in predicting attitudes toward social issues. Additionally, we have found that there are separate value systems for different self-states (actual vs. ought) and mood states (happy vs. sad). Our current research is aimed at providing evidence that value accessibility mediates the effects of situational context on the structure of the value systems.
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TRANSFER OF RESEARCH INFORMATION FROM DEVELOPED TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Convenor: d'YDEWALLE, Gèry.
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TRANSFER OF RESEARCH INFORMATION AND DISINTEGRATION OF PSYCHOLOGY.
JING, Qicheng; Institute of Psychology, chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
The transfer of research information from developed to developing countries and vice versa is becoming a major problem in scientific exchange between the two scientific communities. In the case of China, the shortage of books and periodicals makes it difficult for psychologists to keep abreast of new research results in a given field. Psychologist have to rely on the few books written by domestic authors and translated works of Western psychologists. Very few third world psychologists could attend international meetings due to financial restrictions. Fortunately, the language problem is no longer a major obstacle, for in recent years more young psychologists have a good mastery of the English language.
The case is even worse for transfer of scientific information from developing to developed countries. Communication system is underdeveloped and costly. There is almost no E-Mail in scientific and educational institutions, to send Fax message abroad costs about USS10 a page which amounts to 1/4 of a Chinese psychologist's monthly salary. Research papers submitted to international journals are often rejected without good reasons. International journals usually use American criteria for evaluating papers from developing countries, reviewers indeed are authoritative in the field, but who know little about the culture in which the study took place, or simply because the research results ran contrary to their own. For psychology to be an internationally coherent science, understanding has to be fostered, tolerance needed, biases have to be overcome. The transfer of research information between developing and developed countries is most important to prevent the disintegration of psychology into different worlds.
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TRANSFER OF RESEARCH INFORMATION: THE NEED FOR A TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION.
ARDILA, Ruben; Institute for Scientific Research, Caribbean Center for Advanced Studies, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Transfer of research information from developed to developing countries has encountered a number of difficulties: lack of knowledge about the availability of sources, lack of access to sources of information, distrust concerning the application of research findings from developed to developing countries, issues of "cultural imperialism", and others.
At the present time many of the above traditional difficulties can be overcome, and real transfer of research information could become a reality. However, it is important to point out that communication should be in both directions, and that developing countries also have a lot to contribute to developed countries. In order to be useful, transfer of research information should be in both directions. Unfortunately, this seems to be a very distant goal.
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TRANSFER OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH INFORMATION FROM WESTERN TO ARAB CULTURES.
ABOU-HATAB, Fouad A. L . H.; Ain- Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Throughout the history of human civilization, knowledge transfer played the maJor role in social and cultural development. This is true for both ancient and modern civilizations. Arab and Islamic culture had an historical experience in this regard during the period from 8th to 15th centuries when interacting with the West (Greco-Roman Culture) and the East (Indian Culture). The result was the development at both intranational and international levels. This experience should be examined at the percent so as the transfer of knowledge (including psychological knowledge be used for the benefit of both the importer (developing countries) the exporter (developed countries).
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TOWARD GLOBAL TRANSFER OF RESEARCH INFORMATION.
KAGITCIBASI, Cigdem; Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Transfer of research information from developed to developing countries is of crucial importance for psychologists from developing countries to keep up with the cuerent developments in the world and to be adequately integrated into international psychology. There are impediments in the way, mostly financial ones. Priority is given to technology transfer, and psychology ranks rather low in priority with regard to allocations made for acquisitions to libraries and laboratories.
One reason for this is the rather low status of psychology in many developing countries because it is not seen as a policy-relevant science which can inform large scale efforts for societal development. Psychologists should make a concerted effort to engage in multidisciplinary problem-oriented research, to make a niche for themselves among the more prestigious sciences in the developing countries. They will then be in a better position to demand greater allocation of resources for research information transfer.
There is an additional issue which needs to be attended to, and that is the transfer of research information from developing countries to other developing countries and to developed countries. This can be important especially in areas of psycholoqy where theories and applications are open to cultural influences. Research information originating in developing countries promises to be a corrective for ethnocentrism in the field and to contribute to sound crosscultural theory development.
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A PROPOSAL FOR LIBRARY RESOURCE CENTRES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
PANDEY, Janak; Allahab University, India.
In the last decade, the library facilities have further declined in most of the developing countries due to a variety of factors (Prices of books and journals, exchange rates, etc.). The electronic based scientific information has not effectively reached researchers of the developing countries. Well-meaning distribution of journals and books to individuals or departments for brief periods without long term planning generally results in little meaningful impact. Some coordinated action plan should be developed involving international organizations like IUPsyS, IAAP, and IACCP with co-operation of national organizations of developed countries.
Therefore, as a first step, there should be assessment of the magnitude of the problem in different parts of the developing world (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and South America) leading to identification of some institutions or departments for proposed Library Resource Centres (LRCs). My efforts will be to present for discussion some criteria for selection of institutions for LRCs alld guidelines for their utilization and management.
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MASTERING IN HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL WELFARE IN NICARAGUA.
MUÑOZ LÓPEZ, Manuel; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
This paper seeks a double goal: on one side it tries to contribute with an organitational scheme of training and North-South educational cooperation programmes; on the other side, the Master on Health and Welfare Psychology (Maestría en Psicología de la Salud y del Bienestar Social) organized by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (España) in Managua (Nicaragua) is presented.
In the first place the cooperation lines in training set up till these days are briefly analyzed. In the second place it will discuss the mean stages and jobs that are necessary to set up a training and cooperation programme among countries with very different educational levels and diverse socio-economic environments. The whole process is illustrated with the design, setting up and evaluation of the aforementioned Master.
The following specific aspects are discussed:
- Birth of the idea: analysis of needs in the developing country; interest in international cooperation in the developed country (institution).
- Funding of the programme: need of sharing the funding and involving institutions from both countries.
- Project design: joint work team; aims; preliminary curricular programme; teaching staff; minimal necessary economic resources; students; involved institutions.
- Providing of material resources: audiovisual; computer support (hardware and software); library; others.
- Development of the course: final curricular programme; facilities (boarding, classrooms), travels; schedules, language; class tools; evaluation of students.
Finally, it will discuss some of the conclusions and future perspectives derived from the experience adquired in the Cooperation Programme among the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (España), The Universidad Centroamericana (Nicaragua) and the Universidad Autónoma de Nicaragua (Nicaragua).
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CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS TO THE ECLECTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: RESEARCH METHODS, FAMILY PERSPECTIVES.
COMUNIAN, Anna Laura; University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
This paper offers a theoretical exploration of the dynamics of the eclectic psychotherapy from a cross cultural point of view.
Particular attention is paid to the processes by which cultures maintain pattern of basic assumptions, in family therapy concerns despite attempts to change them. Whether family values can have more influence on culture values is explored. This paper describes how the research was done and why it was done this way. Major themes appear which are in some cases very different from those that have appeared currently in non-eclectic therapy. It is suggested that these themes should be the starting point for asking further questions about the family therapy perspectives and the complexity in organizing cross-cultural data.
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ETHNIC MINORITIES AND PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE U.S. - AN OVERVIEW.
KANNA, Jaswant L.; University of Tennessee, Memphis, U.S.A.
This paper will discuss the trials, tribulations and some gains of ethnic minorities in psychology in the U.S. In addition to giving a brief historical perspective, the paper will attempt to discuss some of the problems evident in the areas of ethnic minorities from a theoretical, organizational and societal viewpoint.
From a theoretical point of view, the role of variables like etic/emic, mainstreaming/pluralism and model personality/individual differences will be evaluated. Professional psychology's challenges in the light of demographic changes in the U.S. will be discussed.
An effort will be made to describe some of the impediments experienced toward a more rapid progress in this area together with some of the changes that have occurred in this context. Possible solutions will be suggested.
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WORKING WITH ETHNIC MINORITIES IN AUSTRALIA.
NEIL, Sandra E. S.; University of Melbourne, Australia.
Working with Ethnic Minorities presents many issues for the therapist. Firstly, cultural standards, expectations and attitudes of clients may have varying degrees of familiarity to the therapist. Secondly, the task which is incumbent for the therapist is to reproduce the "virtues" and "norms" of both societies. Thirdly, it is necessary to understand what universals are needed to gain empathetic understanding ('verschtehen') of the migrant as a human being, and in one's self.
Further, Newton's Third Law has ramifications that presuppose the seven virtues including integrity and justice within the therapist. This will be discussed with case studies, from both a family therapy and organizational context.
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SAYAL-BENNETT, Anu; Oak House, Upton Hospital, Psychological Services, Berks, United Kingdom.
Research shows that those who are the most oppressed by our society, i.e., black and ethnic minority women are leastlikely to receive mental health services that meet their needs. Instead of counseling and therapy, they are given potentially invasive and harmful treatments such as psychotropic frugs and ECT. In the U.K. suicide rates amongst 15-24 year old Asian women are more than twice the national average, perhaps as a consequence of such culturally inappropriate treatments.
This project has attracted special "Health of the Nation" funding and aims to initiate and research community based Asian womens' therapy groups, which are empowering and respectful, as an additional local mental health treatment resource, which will reduce depression, improve psychological well being and hopefully reduce suicide rates in this group. (One of the "Health of the National" targets).
Group facilitators, also Asian women, are specialists counsellors with personal and professional experience of the effects of Gender and Race on mental health. Semi structured interviews, quantitative and qualitative studies will add to a currently limited knowledge base in order to expand services with models of good psychological practice.
This paper will present some preliminary findings and explore issues raised in Project Amba's early stages.
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NEWTON ' S THIRD LAW - THE PUSH AND PULL IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC CONSULTING ROOM IN AN INTER-CULTURAL CONTEXT.
SILVERBERG, Robert L. N.; University of Melbourne, Australia.
The usual interaction between therapist and client is a give-and-take which involves such matters as transference, countertransference, and resistance. The author believes that more levels of interaction take place than were classically described.
The patient and therapist, as individuals, relate to each other across many contexts, such as physical, intellectual, spiritual, emotional, sensual, nutritional, and interactional. All of these contexts, or any one of them, may be used as part of the therapeutic process. When working with ethnic minorities, the author advocates increased activity of the therapist, with extensive use of self as a prime tool to allow integration of these numerous contexts into a unified, but flexible therapeutic alliance.
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CROSS-CULTURAL ASSESSMENT IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT: IN SEARCH OF UNIVERSALITY OR DIVERSITY?.
Convener: LANGLEY, Ronelle; University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.
The symposium presents the application of career development assessment within various settings, based on cross-cultural research.
During the past decade major additions to and improvements in the assessment of career development have been made. These instruments are applied internationally in a variety of settings and in different cultural contexts. Both work ethics as well as scientific psychology originated from Western culture. These factors inevitably served as a frame of reference for the formulation of career development theories and assessment measures. Special emphasis will be laid during the symposium on a cross-cultural perspective of current career development theories and assessment measures. Cross-cultural applications of career development in schools, universities and organizations focusing on the African and the African-American culture, will be highlighted during the symposium.
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CROSS-CULTURAL VOCATIONAL ASSESSMENT: CONTRIBUTIONS OF A PHOTO-BASED METHOD.
TÉTREAU, Bernard P.; University of Montreal, Montreal, CANADA.
In order to counteract the influence of verbal and cognitive factors in the measurement of vocational interests we constructed the Visual Interest Inventory (VII), a pictorial instrument based on 102 colour slides of various occupations, as well as a verbal form to be used in comparative studies with samples of people from different linguistic, cultural, and socio-economic backgrounds.
Statistical analyses show that the VII is a reliable tool yielding scores on scales corresponding to Holland's RIASEC interest and personality typology. Comparative studies between the Vll and its verbal counterpart show that the nonverbal instrument is generally more sensitive with adolescents, and particularly with socio-economically underpriviledged students. Results of intercultural and interlinguistic studies with high school and college students in a dozen countries, notably in South America, tend to confirm Holland's hexagonal model and to support the hypothesis that interest patterns are more differentially universal than universally different.
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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.
BALOYI, David; Department of Education, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
Research indicates that career development programmes have a positive effect on both secondary school pupils and university students. (Garis, 1982; Langley, 1989). Super (1980) stated that career development and maturity is a lifelong process beginning very early in life. The successfull completion of the career developmental tasks in one stage has a positive effect on the career orientation of the individual during the next stage of this lifelong process.
The paper will discuss the nature and impact of a career development programme on high school students in a cross-cultural perspective within the South African context. It will also describe how can career development programmes be structured to address the needs related to subject and career choices experienced by the majority of students during their junior secondary school phase.
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USE OF CROSS-CULTURAL ASSESSMENT AT A COUNSELLING CENTRE.
DLAMINI, Nondomisa; University of Zululand, Zululand, South Africa.
Today's undergraduate students need to adapt to change in types of work opportunities as well as the change in the economic and political interdependence of nations (Leape, 1991). It will therefore be an important task of student counsellors to prepare undergraduate students for the demands of a changing society.
The Student Guidance Services of the University of Zululand was since 1988 actively involved with the cross-cultural development and standardization of psychometric instruments for career development in Southern Africa. Since the beginning of 1994 the university also started with a career development programme to prepare first-year students for the transition from school to university as well as helping students to make career decisions. The following instruments were administered to all the first-year students: Career Development Questionnaire, Self-Directed Search, Values Scale, Salience Inventory as well as the Survey for Study Habits and Attitudes.
Feedback was given by counsellors in group sessions as well as in individual counselling. A second phase in the career development programme will be when the Mentor computerized career guidance programme will be available on campus. Students who need assistance in career decision-making, self-knowledge or career information will be referred to the Mentor system. The University of Zululand is the first university to initiate a comprehensive career development programme like this for African students.
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UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS.
HELMS, Janet E.; University of Maryland, Maryland, U.S.A.
In this presentation, I will argue that racial identity development theory has the potential to explain those aspects of organizational behavior involving interactions across socially defined "racial" groups. However, I will also propose that the heuristic value of the racial identity perspective requires a deliberate focus on inter-group tensions attributable to perceived racial-group categories within organizations.
Racial identity development concerns the process by which members of disempowered racial groups (that is, individuals of color) form a healthy group or collective identification with their disparaged racial membership group, and caucasions or whites form a nonracist humanistic collective identification with their artificially exalted racial (rather than ethnic) membership group. Both processes potentially affect the manner in which persons in organizations perceive and react to one another as well as to racial stimuli in the work environment. Thus, racial identity theory may have implications at individual as well as systemic levels within organizations.
Toward encouraging the use of racial identity theory to study organizational behavior, I will discuss ways in which it might be used to explain existing organizational literature better and improve future research.
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APPLICATION OF CROSS-CULTURAL PROCEDURES IN THE SELECTION AND TRAINING OF MANAGERS IN AN ORGANIZATION.
LANGLEY, Ronelle; BREDENKAMP, S. and DERT, C.; University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
SMITH, P.; University of South Africa, South Africa.
Saeed (1990) stated that these are the decades of management; whether developing countries will make a deserved e'ntry into the twenty-first century will depend upon their ability to acquire and use the skills of modern management.
To advance managerial skills, industrial psychologists in developing countries have to be aware of the cross-cultural diversity in their organizations and apply procedures in their selection and training programmes for managers that will be appropriate to the needs of different cultures. An organization in South Africa evaluated 49 subjects from Western, African and Asian cultures with the aim to select candidates for an accelerated management training programme. Various psychometric tests like the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Career Mastery Inventory, the Mental Alertness Test and the Values Scale were administered. Candidates were further evaluated at an assessment centre. Discriminant analyses indicated that the Values Scale (the only instrument in the programme that was cross-culturally developed) was the most suitable predictor of eventual successful candidates from different cultures. CAREER MATURlTY IN A THIRD WORL CONTEXT: IN SEARCH OF A NEW DEFINITION?.
NEL, Zak Z. J.; Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, South Africa.
According to Donald Super's well known definition, career maturity can be seen as the readiness to cope with developmental tasks at certain critical points in life, and to make the required meaningful career decisions to cope adequately with the demands made by society. This influential definition, as well as Super's theory in the field of career development, has had a significant impact in third world countries. However, an analysis of Super's definition of career maturity and the experience of career counselling practitioners in third world countries indicates that career maturity as defined by Super and his co-workers, is more applicable to first world countries with a developed economy. The reasons are that third world countries, like South Africa, are characterised by mass unemployment, inadequate and misdirected education, growing informal economy, prejudices and communal decision making strategies. In light of the limited formal careers available to third world youth, it is now suggested that Super's definition should be adapted to include an entrepreneurial component as school leavers need to create their own jobs. The readiness to create an own job as a component of career maturity has implications in terms of career maturity measurement, career development programmes and career counselling practice.
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CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL EVENT MANAGEMENT
Convenor: SMITH, Peter B.; University of Survey, Brighton, U.K.
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THE USE OF THE EVENT MANAGEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE IN DIAGNOSING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE.
BOCHNER, Stephen; University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia.
It is hypothesised that variability in preferred ways of managing events within specific national cultures may be predicted on the basis of Hofstede's characterisation of salient cultural values. A comparison is reported of event management within two selected contrasting Australian organisations, one entrepreneurial and one non-entrepreneurial. The relative utility of the event management model for studies within and between national cultures is discussed.
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EVENT MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF CONFLICT.
LEUNG, Kwok; Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
The cross-cultural event management project discussed in other papers within this symposium has detected substantial reliability across event types in ways of handling events. However, there is also value in examining variance which is distinctive to the handling of specific events. The management of conflict is of particular interest cross-culturally, since great variations exist in preferences for direct or indirect methods of conflict resolution. This paper examines cultural differences in the use of event management methods in the context of conflict. The results indicate variations in both the methods employed and in evaluation of their effectiveness.
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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOURCES USED FOR INTERPRETING EVENTS AND EVALUATIONS BY ROLE SET MEMBERS : A 9-NATION STUDY.
PETERSON, Mark F.; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, USA.
The implications of a manager using a particular source of guidance in handling a given event can be assessed in several ways. As indicated in the first paper in this symposium, managers who rely heavily upon a particular source tend to see use of that source as useful or effective. An alternative way of evaluating effectiveness is to draw on assessments by the manager's role set - their superior, colleagues and subordinates. The present paper follows this second logic by assessing the relationships between the extent to which particular sources are used and evaluations by role set members of how well events are handled.
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ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH SOURCES USED TO MANAGE EVENTS.
SAVAGE, Grant T.and SORENSON, Ritch; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, USA.
Data from the U.S. sample of an international study are used to analyze organization characteristics that may influence the sources managers use to interpret and respond to work events. Four organization characteristics are studied: (1) size, (2) ownership, (3) organization task, and (4) department task. Organization theory work suggests that each should influence the way work is accomplished. The implications of these variables are assessed using ANOVA to compare the extent to which they are associated with use made of various sources of meaning (e.g., rules, norms, superiors). Hierarchical regressions are used to assess the extent to which the relationship between sources used and self-report criteria (e.g., effective event management, commitment, satisfaction) vary by organization characteristic. The ANOVA results show that the sources used differ most consistently according to organization ownership and department task. These differences vary depending on type of event: personnnel-related, materials-related, or production-process-related. Regressions show little "moderating" effect of organization characteristics on the generally strong relationships reported in other papers in the symposium between sources used and criteria. Implications for international comparative research are considered.
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LEADERSHIP AS EVENT MANAGEMENT: A CROSS-CULTURAL SURVEY BASED UPON MIDDLE MANAGERS FROM 25 NATIONS.
SMITH, Peter B.; University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
Over the past four years an extensive survey has been undertaken of the way in which a world-wide sample of nearly 3000 managers in 25 countries handle some of the everyday events with which they are confronted. The focus of the project is upon how strongly managers rely on each of eight different sources of guidance in assigning meaning to events. Do they for instance rely on their own experience and training, or do they prefer to consult their boss or other members of their role set? Such choices serve to determine the nature and variability of their leadership style. This paper provides an overview of the project, focussing particularly upon data collection procedures and the comparison of mean scores for each country sample. The findings are evaluated in terms of their contribution to the growing literature concerning cultural differences in effective managerial behaviors. Comparisons are made with earlier large scale surveys such as that of Hofstede (1980) and other more recent studies such as Trompenaars (1993).
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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: RELIGIO-PHILOSOPHICAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES.
Chair and Convener: SRINIVAS, Kalburgi M.; University of Regina, Regina, Canada.
The theme for the papers will be the change strategy of Organizational Development (Action research as it is sometimes called). Various man-in-world perspectives will be taken: religio-philosophical, socio-psychological, politico-social and such other. The objective of this critical-constructive focus is to move to a revision, reformulation, addition or develop alternative notions for organizational change and renewal that facilitate not only organizational but at the same time national and regional development in the full sense of the term. The mental maps of a people are often identified as the blockages to development be it in the economic or social arena. But the papers here ask the question what if our premise is that a given framework is an opportunity rather than a hindrance?.
What approaches and techniques can we then identify that would take advantage of the particular framework?. The view from the various "frameworks" will lead to the expansion of organizational and social change theories as well as techniques for application of in non-Western settings.
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MAN-IN-WORLD PARADIGMS AND ORGANIZATION CHANGE MODELS.
SRINIVAS, Kalburgi M.; University of Regina, Regina, Canada.
Organization Development as an approach to organizational change is built upon a paradigm of the human psyche that is Western. OD has by and large been quite a successful model in the West. The question of whether other approaches might better suit under other man-in-world paradigms forms the theme of this paper. Four main paradigms are explored coceptually and empirically: Reductionist, Humanistic, Dualistic and Monism. Reductionist psychology is the predominant paradigm in the West. It holds that human consciousness is the result of the interaction of material entities; human behavior emerged from animal behavior and so, human beings can best be understood in terms of more primitive modes of functioning. The humanistic paradigm which rallied against this limited perspective noted unique human qualities such as self-actualization needs. Group dynamics and the early thrust of OD came out of this humanistic focus. It however does not recognize higher levels of consciousness or transcent conscious awareness, which the dualistic and the monistic paradigms do. Many man-in-world paradims such as the Confucian, Afro-centric, Native-American and Vedantic are based in the dualistic and monistic paradigms. Some of these cultures and their organizations have thrived in a materialistic sense in the past or are doing so presetly. Thus the question whether culture-specific models of organizational change can be envisioned, and what these might be.
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LEWIN MEETS CONFUCIUS: A REVIEW OF THE OD MODEL OF CHANGE.
MARSHAK, Robert J.; Marshak Associates & American University, Washington, DC. USA.
Cultural limits and overall efficacy of Organization Development (OD) has recently come under scrutiny. This paper attempts to speak to both issues by examining the OD model of change, i.e. Lewin's three stage change process of unfreeze-move-refreeze and comparing it to the model(s) of change based in East Asian and Confucian cultural traditions. This comparison brings to surface the different assumptions about change in the Western and the Eastern cultures. The analysis suggests that different culturally based models of change exist and are likely to lead adherents to employ different change methods and approaches. Acceptance of both models as valid points to a possible synthesis that would address developmental and transformational change processes. More research into the change models and assumptions inherent in different cultures and cosmologies is needed, not only to inform current OD practice, but to expand the range of change theories and methods available for dealing with contemporary organizational issues.
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JEWISH CORE VALUES IN RELIGIO-HUMANISTIC INSTITUTIONS: A VALUE-BASED APPROACH TO ORGANIZATION CHANGE.
MASSARIK, Fred; University of California Los Angeles, USA.
In considering Jewish values as they relate to organization change, we must first differentiate Orthodoxy on one hand and a generic, culture (but not religion) based proto-Jewish value system on the other, with Reform and Conservative Judaism occupying intermediate positions. Also, the special cases of Reconstructionism and of Buber's humanistic/social/existential vision will be considered. Orthodox Judaism itself is undergoing changes (e.g. Chabad) and has shown an organizational renaissance of noteworthy proportion. Issue clusters to be examined in relation to the above are the following: (a) commitment to freedom, (b) capacity for change of previously-stable internal structural forms, (c) creative modes for dealing with internal conflict, (d) development of new organization concepts, and their implementation (e.g. the Kibbutz); but also (e) explicit reliance on complex coalitions (e.g. Israel's party structure), and paradoxically (f) resistance to change (viz. many Jewish religious and community entities Congregations, Federations, and social agencies) and (g) persistent internal conflict (e.g. within Congregations and various agencies and institutions). Philosophic/theologic ideals are
distinguished from their practical organizational expressions. The concept of monotheism may be viewed as a unifying value position. Implications for organization development are noted, especially as they relate to the field's emerging trends.
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ISLAMIC WORK ETHIC AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT.
ALI, Abbas J.; Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, USA
AZIM, Ahmad; University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
The Arabian Gulf region has been a centre of international attention since the discovery of oil in the early 1900s. Issues related to Arab management styles, practices and work orientations are not known or understood both within and outside of the region. Cross-cultural negotiations and organization development activities are therefore carried out in a less than optimum manner. Islam is a dominant influence in the Arab world and Islamic work ethic (IWE) needs to be examined vis-a-vis organization development theory and techniques. IWE stands not for life denial but for life fulfillment and holds business motives in the highest regard. The prophet Mohammed preached that hard work caused sins to be absolved and that "no one eats better food than he who eats out of his work." It has long been known that a cultural work ethic can facilitate economic development. The contribution of the protestant work ethic to capitalism and the development of the Western world is well known. Less well known is the way IWE impacts upon the Arab organizations and thereby affects the development of the region as a whole. This paper will examine the IWE both at a theoretical (ranging from the Ibn-Rashd to the Jabria Schools), as well as at an empirical level (using Survey measures of IWE) With the implications of this as the backdrop, the paper will seek to formulate a culture- specific model of organizational renewal and development.
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CHANGE, DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFORMATION: VEDANTIC INSIGHTS
CHAKRABORTY, S.K.; Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, India
The paper is an attempt to shed light on change-development- transformation from the subjective standpoint. The treatment will bank upon a few salient notes of Vedantic psycho- philosophy. Thus, the Vedantic model postulates, amongst other things, the poorna (whole, self-fulfilled) concept of man. The quality of physical existence is therefore treated as a support only for the human being to evolve towards the poornatwa (wholeness) already involved in him. All varieties of development - economic or organizational or technological - would therefore be judged by Vedanta ultimately in terms of whether they help or hinder a person towards this built- in poornatwa. If the quality of psychological existence tends towards stress, emptiness, drift and the like, in pursuit of quantitative physical existence (GNP, per capita income), then the Vedantic viewpoint would argue: "subjective human development" in the truest, timeless, space-less, perspective must be the yardstick to evaluate and guide the nature and direction of all objective change- development-transformation. Perceptive and pure intelligence, instead of mere rational intellect, is urged by Vedanta to manage our institutions in this light. Alongside this "micro", human development view, Vedanta also projects economic and other developments against the "macro" cosmic canvas. The feeling of oneness (ektamanubhuti) in and with the whole of creation is a positive goal set for attainment in the course of human development. And this has profound implications for all strategies and programmes of quantitative development insofar as they violate man-cosmos unitive holism, and accelerate ecological denudation. So far as developing economies are concerned, monetary and need goals (artha and kama) are in the centre of the Vedantic holistic-systemic four-goals (Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha) framework, both for the individual and the society. However, all CDT endeavours should find it very useful to scrutinize themselves in the light of whether the artha and kama (economic and desire-fulfilment) goals continue to be always subject to the bounds of dharma (righteous human values) on one side, and moksha (transcendental values) on the other.
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LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: IMPLICATIONS FROM SECULAR AND SACRED ASPECTS FROM ANCIENT INDIA
GUPTA, Rajen and FOUCHEUX, Claude; Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
In management education, India has been a very faithful adopter of American ideas on management and organization development for over quarter of a century. Innumerable organizations of various denominations have used these ideas in their efforts to improve effectiveness. All this has been largely guided by a secular view of organizations and society. It has led to, as elsewhere, a bag of mixed results. A question is raised here as to whether there is a place for the sacred in the management of organizations, more specifically with respect to leadership and organizational tranformation. The question is examined from an Indian viewpoint. It looks at the place for the sacred in modern and postmodern thought. It then goes on to relating it with work organizations and looks at some Indian conceptions of the sacred at the individual and collective levels. Finally it draws implications of these conceptions for managerial leadership and organization development.
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SPIRITUALITY IN LEADERSHIP: A BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
KANUNGO, Rabindra and MENDONCA, Manuel; McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
This paper examines the nature of spirituality and its manifestation in the leaders, followers and their interactions. Spiritual experience is the very essence of human existence. Spirituality is experienced at three levels. At the cognitive level, it represents a realization that there is a set of cardinal virtues and capital vices, and the goal of human beings is to live the virtues and overcome the vices. At the effective level, it represents a state of blissful existence resulting from complete trust and dependence on these values or on a leader who embodies them. At the manifest behavior level, spirituality is expressed in moral altruistic behavior. The observation of leadership phenomenon suggests that the leaders are intensely aware of their spiritual self when they bring about change in the status quo in order to achieve an idealized vision encouraging self-transformation in themselves and in their followers. At the cognitive level, spirituality is expressed in the eterenal values incorporated in the leader's vision. At the affective level, it is manifested in the emotional bonding with a trust and faith in these values. In behavior, it radiates through rituals supported by the leader's virtuous life and altruistic actions. In conclusion, it is clear that spirituality when manifested in leadership is the quintessence of transformational influence.
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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY AND PRACTICE: A CHINESE CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
KAO, Henry S.R. and SEK-HONG, Ng; University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
This paper explores and examines a Chinese approach to the conceptualization and practice of organizational development. It is argued that the notion or organizational development implies a corporate commitment to and wholesome involvement in a process of planned change and that the Chinese cultural character is well poised to accommodate with and harness changes for organizational activities and objectives. The emphasis of Chinese traditional values upon trust, fidelity, altruistic and unspecified obligations of reciprocity is an important source of strategic advantages which give a Chinese firm its resilience and flexibility to engineer and adapt to innovations and changes. Moreover, the restrained desires of the "minimum self", the characteristic concern of the Chinese for "face" and networking, as well as their inherent aversion from open conflict in disputes are also likely to witness in most Chinese organizations, a workforce showing a high tolerance and low antagonism against changes. References will be drawn from several case studies, conducted in the hong Kong context during the 80s, to demonstrate how a non-recalcitrant and receptive labour force have facilitated the introduction of computerization and other micro-electronic technologies for upgrading productivity in the workplace under the Chinese ethos. In Mainland China and Taiwan, there has also been ample evidence to illustrate penetrative corporate experiences, reported in such large-scale heavy engineering plants as China Steel, whereby time celebrated Chinese ethical principles - notably those enshrined in the etiquette of Confucian teachings - have been successfully harnessed and applied with inspirations for the holistic "re-formation" of the enterprise. These experiences will be reviewed in order to enable the authors to make some tentative statements whether the Chinese way can furnish an alternative prescription to the Western approach in the realm of organizational development, especially in sustaining the growth momentum that heralds business and the economy now in Taiwan and Mainland China.
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ORGANIZATIONAL FACILITATION FOR TECHNOMIX GROUPS IN KOREA: A CHALLENGE
LEE, Jae Kyoo, Taegu University, Taegu, Korea.
In the early 1970s small Japanese firms in diverse industries established what are called as "Technomix Groups" (TG) with the aid of government agencies, in order to network and cooperate with respect to information, technology, pooled manufacturing and marketing, and shared R & D efforts. The TGs multiplied quickly and became highly effective mechanisms for diffusion of ideas and reduction of costs. Several TGs went on to incorporate together as new firms. Korean attempt to duplicate this success story, launched with the backing of commercial banks and the Korea Small and Medium Industry Promotion Corporation (SMIPC) has not fared well. The growth and spread of TGs, inspite of many success stories, has not paralled the Japanese experience. This paper analyzes this lukewarm Korean reception to the TG idea through a comparison of the Korean with the Japanese culture as well as with empirical data based on a survey of Korean and Japanese businessmen. The applicability of Organization Development notions, with Korean nuances is discussed.
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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS FROM A BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE STANDPOINT
KIRK-SMITH, Michael, University of Ulster, N. Ireland.
This paper critically examines Organizational Development (OD) as a means of facilitating planned change in organizations. Traditional OD approaches are viewed as having outcomes that are sometimes of questionable utility to host organizations and pronounced methodological weaknesses. These drawbacks are traced to the ideological and theoretical roots of OD in Organizational Behaviour (OB), which result in the use of untestable and unverifiable theories of human action. This in turn gives weak specification of cause-effect relationships and hence low practical utility in facilitating change. An alternative approach is suggested that uses single-case experimental methods to introduce and evaluate the effects of these interventions, and thus to identify causality. The key to this method is that the independent and dependent variables are behaviourally defined, with the organization being used as its own control through baseline measures. It is argued that this approach offers a way forward that could help in overcoming some of the weaknesses of traditional approaches to OD.
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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND NATIVE SPIRITUALITY
SIOUI, George and HAMPTON, Eber, Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Regina, Canada
Aboriginal organizations are now emerging in Canada and in the United States and are seeking to grow and prosper in pursuit of their own unique goals and ideals. A number of external as well as internal forces make it difficult for these new organizations to survive and to be effective. The adequacy of North-American OD's applicabilty in aboriginal organizations is discussed and limitations are pointed out. Incorporation of aborginal spiritual and traditional values in the renewal and synergization of these organizations is discussed.
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CULTURAL MENTAL MAPS AS OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
ENRIQUEZ, Virgilio G., Psychology Research Institute, Philippines.
This paper describes the author's politico-social change model developed on the notions of counter-domination and empowerment as a response to domination. Six levels of domination are described and a change strategy of organizational development at six levels is identified. The discussion and the conceptual notions are based on indigenous psychology of the Philippine people.
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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MULTICULTURAL CONTEXT: RELEVANCE OF AMERICAN MODELS AND TECHNIQUES
BRUIN, Carol de, South African Breweries Ltd., South Africa.
Early OD interventions in South Africa focused only on the privileged white management structures, with little or no acknowledgement of the place or importance of the other cultural groups. Changes in the socio-political environment, the shortage of managerial skills and the moral issue of whites comprising less than 15 percent of the total population but holding more than 90 percent of the managerial jobs have forced OD interventions to take account of the diverse cultures in the workforce. Poor productivity and need for rapid economic advancement to meet the aspirations of the masses have created a desperate need for business to become more efficient. But it has come to be recognized that there are dangers in importing organizational renewal or revitalization techniques from across cultural boundaries. South African organizations operate in a unique set of circumstances and comprise a mix of diverse and un-American cultures. Thus, OD interventions have to be value porous. The U.S. models may provide some of the parameters but fail to provide the content or process. Organizations must be developed with a typical and acceptable South African culture. In recent years, OD interventions in South Africa are seeking to focus on the multicultural aspect of the environment. The paper seeks to identify the inhibitors and facilitators to development in the unique set of social, cultural and political environments that constitute South Africa to-day, and consequent adaptations and innovations in utilizing OD.
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YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT: ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL COSTS.
Convener: WINEFIELD, Anthony H.; University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Unemployment has become a serious problem in many countries. Overall levels of unemployment in the 1990s have been higher than at any time since the Great Depression. Statistically, young people are the most affected, and applied psychologists are becoming increasingly interested in understanding the effects of both unemployment and underemployment on the well-being of young people. The potential costs, both to the individual and to society, need to be understood so that the policy makers, educators and counsellors can make informed decisions in relation to young people. The symposium should be of interest to anyone concerned with important social issues.
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INTRODUCTION: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON YOUNG PEOPLE.
WINEFIELD, Anthony H.; University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Although psychological distress in unemployed young people is less severe than in mature job losers, there are good reasons for studying them. First, unemployment levels are particularly high in the young. Second, some have argued that unemployment distress can be fully explained by economic deprivation but because school leavers are often no worse off financially than they were at school, they offer the opportunity to assess whether lack of a job means more than just lack of money. Third, in order to shed light on whether unemployment causes psychological distress (social causation) or whether the psychologically distressed are likely to become unemployed (drift), longitudinal studies are needed. Such studies are difficult where job loss is the critical variable because baseline measures are often ccnfounded by fear associated with anticipated loss. Longitudinal studies of school leavers are free from such contamination, moreover there is evidence that job loss in this population is no more traumatic than failure to find a job. Data are presented from Spain and Ireland, countries suffering very high levels of unemployment, Australia and the US where the unemployment rates are moderate and the Netherlands with a relatively low level of unemployment as well as generous unemployment benefits.
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SCHOOL-LEAVERS' SELF-ESTEEM AND UNEMPLOYMENT.
DOOLEY, David and PRAUSE, JoAnn; University of California, Irvine, U.S.A.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( United States ) was used to study the effect of being unemployed or underemployed on the self-esteem of young adults controlling for their self-esteem and other variables while still in high school and for community unemployment rates at reinterview. Over 2500 respondents were interviewed twice--in 1980 while still in high school and in 1987 after having entered the workforce. This sample excluded people who went to college or who were not in the workforce at reinterview. There was a strong selection effect for males but not females. After controlling for 1980 self-esteem, parent's education, graduation, academic achievement, and race, 1987 employment status had a strong effect on 1987 self-esteem. Being employed but unsatisfied with one's job, being unemployed, and being underemployed even though satisfied with one's job each had a strong negative effect on selfesteem. The nature of this effect did not resemble that of stress effects in adult studies in which the unemployed showed decreases in well-being compared to their prior employed states. Rather, all respondents appeared to gain self-esteem over time. The satisfactorily employed showed significantly more gains in self-esteem than did the others.
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UNEMPLOYMENT: LEARNED HELPLESSNESS OR EXPECTANCY-VALENCE?.
WINEFIELD, Anthony A. H.; The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia.
While the literature found in unemployment argues that the relationship between expectations of unemployment, self-steem and depression variables are incosistent, in this study it was hypothesized that looking for the first job and age variables moderate the relationship among the former variables, making the results of others studies compatible. It was expected that among unemployed who look for their first job, the relationship studied would be consistent with the Expectancy-Valence Theory. Whereas, it was assumed that among those who had a job, the relationship studied would fit into the Learned Helplessness Theory. As well, in a job, the last group of unemployed people it was postulated that the age variable would moderate the realtionships between the entire set of variables studied and the hostility variable.
Using the univariate and multivariate perspective, the results verify, in part, the established hypothesis.
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YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND.
WHELAN, Christopher and HANNAN, D. F.; The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland.
By the late 1980s the level of unemployment in the Republic of Ireland was close to 20 per cent. The dramatic increase in the level of unemployment during the 1980s was accompanied by a steady rise in the proportion who were long-term unemployed and a shift from insurance based financial support to means tested support.
In this paper, drawing on nationally representative samples of the population as a whole and of young adults, we provide an evaluation of the consequences of unemployment for young adults in a society experiencing large-scale unemployment. In pursuing this analysis, we will pay particular attention to the economic consequences of unemployment and the role which declining financial resource's play in translating acute stress into chronic stress.
Furthermore, in our analysis of youth unemployment, we will view the transition to employment as one of a series of transitions to adulthood by means of which young adults attempt to move from dependency on their family of origin to complete economic dependence, and the establishment of their own households.
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YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH IN THE NETHERLAND.
SCHAUFELI, Wilmar B.; Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
As in all industrialized countries, youth unemployment is a particular serious problem in The Netherlands. Generally speaking, the negative impact of unemployment on mental health of young people is documented quite well in the literature. However, fairly little attention has been paid to broader contextual factors that might play a role. The results of two longitudinal studies among Dutch college graduates (N=635) and poorly educated school-leavers (N=767) differ from earlier findings that have been obtained in similar studies in other-mainly Anglo-Saxon- countries. It seems that unemployment has less detrimental effect on mental health in The Netherlands compared to these countries, particularly as far as the well educated sample is concerned.
Moreover, it was found that levels of mental health are relatively stable, even after a relatively long unemployment period up to two years. In addition, the 'reverse causation' hypothesis (i.e. poor mental health causes prolonged unemployment) was not confirmed.
It is suggested that the specific Dutch social context with relatively high unemployment benefits, institutionalization of unpaid work, and quite tolerant public attitudes towards the unemployed can be held responsible for these remarkable findings.
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ACCULTURATION AND ADAPTATION: THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES AND IDENTITY IN MENTAL HEALTH
Convenor: SAM, David L.; Research Center for Health Promotion University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
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ACCULTURATION AND COPING PROCESSSES IN RELATION TO MENTAL HEALTH.
DONÁ, Giorgia; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
The present paper discusses the processes of acculturation and coping as they relate to the mental health status of 205 Guatemalan refugees living in Mexico. Participants were asked about their acculturation attitudes, intentions to return, preference for community figures, appraisal, coping strategies and mental health status. The findings suggest that mental health is best predicted by weaker attachment to the country of origin, manifested by the adoption of an Integration mode of acculturation (as opposed to Separation). Mental health is also predicted by weaker intentions to retum, and preference for both Guatemalan and Mexican community figures. The findings also reveal the significant contribution of appraisal, and to a certain extent, coping, in the prediction of mental health. Generally, individuals who appraise life in the settlements least negatively report better mental health than refugees who appraise life in the settlement more negatively. Furthermore, individuals whose coping strategies involve the utilization of the support from the culture of origin report better mental health than respondents who do not use this type of support. The paper concludes with the discussion of how these findings can be utilized to implement policies in the settlements and develop cultural relevant services for the refugees.
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ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG CHINESE IN CANADA: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SELF-ESTEEM.
HOCOY, Dan; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.
The relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem was proposed to rely on an interaction between two types of components that comprise ethnic identity, a cognitive component which refers to the degree to which one perceives one's ethnicity to comprise one's self-concept (Ethnic Self-Perception), and an affective component which refers to one's evaluation of that ethnicity (Ethnic Esteem). This was tested on 140 Chinese individuals from Southern Ontario. The first hypothesis that Ethnic Self-Perception moderates the relationship between Ethnic Esteem and Self-Esteem was supported, although not in the direction predicted. Further analyses revealed that Ethnic Self-Perception was a moderator only for foreign-born Chinese, and that Perceived Discrimination, which was highly correlated with Ethnic Self-Perception, may have suppressed any relationship between Ethnic Esteem and Self-Esteem for individuals high in Ethnic Self-Perception. The role of Perceived Discrimination provides an explanation for why a relationship between Ethnic Self-Perception and Self-Esteem was only found in low, rather than then predicted high, levels of Ethnic Self-Perception. The second hypothesis, that for individuals scoring high on Ethnic Self-Perception, a positive correlation between Ethnic Esteem and Self-Esteem exists, was supported.
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THE IMPACT OF LOS ANGELES UPRISING ON KOREAN ADOLESCENTS' ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES.
KWAK, Kyunghwa; Queen's, University, Kingston, Canada.
As part of a longitudinal study regarding the development of cognitive and social skills, Korean adolescents were tested, coincidentally, before and after the Los Angeles Uprising in Southern California. This presentation is aimed at finding some changes in the subjects' acculturation attitudes affected by this traumatic social event. Nearly all Koreans in the region were directly or indirectly involved as an ethnic group in the conflict. There were two groups to be compared: a settled group and a newcomer group. The members of the former had a command of English, familiarity with the American culture, and socio-economical stability, whereas the members of the latter had not mastered the language of the hosting society, were still in the initial stage of the acculturation, and were trying to establish their living. It is postulated that: first, members of the newcomer group will show more separatist tendencies and more ingroup favoritism than the settled group; second, better linguistic skills in conjunction with extended social contacts may reduce the magnitude of the individual's acculturation attitudinal changes; and third, some personal characteristicc such as emotional control, personality, identity, will also correlate with changes of acculturation attitudes.
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PREDICTORS OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG PORTUGUESE SECOND GENERATION LIVING IN FRANCE.
NETO, Félix; Faculty of Psychology, University of Porto Rua das Taipas, Porto, Portugal .
As a part of a comprehensive study of the psychological acculturation of Portuguese youth living in France, this paper examines the relationship between satisfaction with life and some psychosocial variables.The sample consists of 519 Portuguese youth resident in Paris (47% were male and 53% female). The following instruments were administered to all subjects: the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Acculturative Attitudes Scales, the Social Anxiety Scale, two brief measures of (a) loneliness and (b) locus of control as well as a background inventory. As expected, no sex differences have been found, but there were significant effects on satisfation with life related to religion, participation in an association, number of Portuguese friends and ethnic identity. Expressed satisfaction with life showed significant negative correlations with perceived difficulties of adaptation, marginalization, social anxiety, and loneliness; and positive correlations with integration and locus fo control. Multiple regression analysis used to determine the significant predictor variables of satisfaction with life indicated that the strongest predictors were loneliness and perceived state of health.These results are discussed in relation to the body of knowledge about subjective well-being.
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LNCIDENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOMATIC SYMPTOMS AMONG YOUNG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS IN NORWAY.
SAM, David L.; Research Center for Health Promotion University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
The paper examines the relationship between migration and the incidence of Psychological and somatic symptoms among 210 young Vietnamese immigrants in Norway. Participants aged 11-18 years were asked to fill a questionnaire that focused on psychological and somatic complaints, acculturation attitudes and experiences, interpersonal relationships, number of friends, and language proficiency. Results suggest that about one in four of the adolescents have from moderate to extreme levels of psychological and somatic symptoms, of which about a fourth of them can be classified as having from high to extreme symptomatology levels. These symptoms were found to be related to stressful acculturation experience, acculturation attitudes of marginalization and integration, and close and supportive parents. These factors accounted for nearly 20 percent of the explained variance, although stressful acculturation experience alone (i.e., difficulties in initiating friendship with Norwegian peers) accounted for only 1% of the variance and was insignificant. The paper theoretically discusses how these factors may be related to acculturative stress, and recommends them as starting points for a primary intervention to reduce psychological and somatic symptoms among Vietnamese adolescents.
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ETHNIC IDENTITY AND ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES IN TITLE RELATION TO SELF-ESTEEM AMONG FOUR SECOND-GENERATION ADOLESCENT GROUPS LIVING IN MONTREAL.
SABATIER, Colette; Université Paris X-Nanterre, Nanterre, France.
BERRY, John; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.
As part of a comprehensive study of the social adaptation and self-esteem of the second-generation adolescents (13-18 years old) involving four ethnic groups this paper examines the relationship of acculturation attitudes and several components of ethnic identity with self-esteem. The sample consists of 87 Greeks, 95 Haitians 73 Italians and 57 Vietnamese adolescents (the majority is born in Montreal, the others have landed before the age of 5).
Measures are ethnic identity as defined by Phinney in the same perspective as Marcia for the general identity, acculturation attitudes as defined by Berry and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale.
The aim of this paper is to identify general patterns among the second-generation adolescents but also to tap differences between groups especially according to the ties of the ethnic community, the physical aspects of the group and the length of the community settlement in Montreal.