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PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND HEALTH DEVELOPMENT
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EXPECTATIONS ABOUT COUNSELING: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON
THOMAS, Kenneth, R.; University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A.
Psychological counseling services have become more accessible in Pacific rim countries such as Taiwan in recent years. Several research studies in the United States with Asian Americans and international students revealed that expectations about counseling arnong Chinese people frequently differ from the assumptions of western psychotherapies. The expectations of a person about what counseling will be like have been round to affect not only the process and outcome of counseling, but also whether the person chooses to enter counseling. Therefore, mental health professionals in Taiwan, who frequently receive training from western countires, may need to modify their counseling techniques to better meet the needs of Chinese people in Taiwan. In this study, we administered the Expectations About Colunseling Questionnaire (EACQ) to 250 undergraduate students trom three universities in Taiwan. The results were compared to the EACQ scores of Hong Kong and American college students in Yuell and Tinsley's (1981) study. Taiwanese students in our study were found to be similar to the Hong Kong students. They both expect the counselor to be an authority figure who can prescribe solution to their problems. Compared with the American students, both Taiwanese and Hong Kong students had lower expectations to assume responsibility for the counseling process and to behave in a motivated manner. Implications for counseling in Taiwan were discussed.
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EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED HOUSEHOLD CROWDING ON SOCIAL ATTITUDES OF THE ADOLESCENTS.
MEENAKSHI, Arora; SRIVASTAVA, A.K.; POONAM, Khanna and POONAM, Sinha; Banaras Hindu University, India.
This study was designed to examine the effects of perception of household crowding on formation of social attitudes of adolescents. The sample consisted of 800 adolescents age ranging from 14 to 18 years. The educational level of the subjects ranged from 9th grade to 12th grade. All subjects belonged to middle class families. The Perceived Household Crowding Questionnaire (PHCQ) and Adolescent's Social Attitude Scale (ASAS) were administered to all the subjects.The subjects were divided into High Crowding Perception group (HCP) Moderate Crowding Perception group (MCP) and finally Low Crowding Perception group (LCP) on the basis of the scores obtained on the PHCQ. The results revealed that the scores obtained on the PHCQ were significantly positively correlated with the attitude towards education and negatively correlated with the attitude toward home and religion. There was no significant correlation between feeling of crowding heterosexual relation and political participation. The main effects of feeling of crowding on attitude towards education, home, religion and heterosexual relations were found to be significant (P <0.01 to 0.05). The main effects of sex were also found to be significant on attitude towards home, heterosexual relations and political participation. The interaction effects were significant only on attitude towards religion. Results of Tukey's HSD revealed that males showed more modern attitude towards heterosexual relations and political participation than females. The results were interpreted in the light of socialization process that occur in Indian Culture.
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AFFECTIVITÉ ET INTELLIGENCE: UNE RECHERCHE AVEC UN CONTE DES FÉES.
COSTA COELHO DE SOUZA, Maria Thereza; Faculdade de Educaçao-UNICAMP-DEPE, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
Dans cette recherche nous avons étudié les relations entre l'affectivité et l'intelligence appuyées sur l'examen de 30 sujets de 9 à 11 ans, qui ont eté soumis à deux épreuves de personnalité, deux épreuves opératoires e à qui nous avons demandé de répeter le conte du "Petit Chaperon Rouge" après l'avoir lu. Les épreuves de personnalité ont detecté et analysé la reaction affective des enfants et les épreuves opératoires ont indiqué leur niveau de développement cognitif. Le conte a eté capable de detecter les aspects affectifs et cognitifs des enfants, car il a provoqué une réaction affective et a exigé des coordinations d'idées. L'histoire du "Petit Chaperon Rouge" a eté un bon instrument pour observer le developpement cognitif et l'organisation affective des enfants. Ils devaient raconter l'histoire après l'avoir lue et l'auteur a trouvé trois niveaux de la reconstitution: 1) reconstitution fantasieuse; 2) reconstitution concrète et 3) reconstitution interprétative. Nous avons basé l'analyse des interpretations des enfants sur la théorie du développement cognitif de Piaget et nous avons recherché des correspondances entre l'affectivité et l'intelligence.
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A STUDY OF AN ALTERNATIVE PARENT TRAINING MODEL.
GULERCE, Aydan; Bogazici University, Turkey.
Research on parental concepts of child development focused primarily on the connections between various parental variables and the actual parenting behavior, showing no interest in the application. Hence, parent training research seems promising to generate fresh hypotheses while interventively testing the use of already collected data-based information. Undoubtedly, however, this new paradigm further raises ethical issues, in addition to the concern about validity, particularly when it is imported by other societies where enduring sociocultural messages may be quite different than those unilinear Western developmental views tend to suggest.
This study is a segment of an on ongoing multivariate and longitudinal project which is expectected to bring many of these issues into the attention from a transformational point of view. Thus, while the ultimate aim is to pull together various variables at macro, mezzo and micro levels of the childculture link within the Turkish context, this particular presentation is a preliminary examination of the utility and effectiveness of an alternative "intervention" model. 60 families participated under the three conditions of the study, forming namely the "sensitivity training", "no feed-back-and-forth" and "no contact" groups. Results obtained by various individual and interactive measures over a year period are being discussed.
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THE APPLICATION OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY TO COMMUNITY BASED HEALTH CARE IN INDIA.
COOK, Philip; School of Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, Canada.
Cross-cultural psychology is increasingly being applied in projects for social change in developing countries. One such application is the study of the role of sociocultural factors in the establishment of community based rehabilitation programmes in India. In the present study the Triandis model of attitude-behavioral prediction, and the Health Belief Model were compared with an Ecocultural Framework comprised of sociocultural factors influencing health care usage by physically disabled persons in two central Indian communities. A combined emic-etic approach was used to collect information on variables such as attitudes towards disabled persons, concepts of personal control, indigenous definitions of disability, and the perceived role of traditional, biomedical, and home health sectors in treating disability. Comparisons were made between disabled (N=97), and non-disabled (N=100) persons in two Bombay communities. Research findings supporting the Ecocultural Framework will be discussed, and suggestions will be made for the application of cross-cultural psychological theory and methodology to Primary Health Care programs in Developing Countries.
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PSYCHOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT
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PSYCHOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING WORLDS.
STUART, C.; University of Newcastle, Australia.
MAcLACHLAN, Malcolm; University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi, Africa.
Why is psychology developing into a success in Malawi, against such a daunting backdrop of 'Third World' organisational and health-related problems? In reconstituting, restating, refuting and reapplying existing psychological concepts, we have already found that inflated expatriate salaries are demotivating both local and expatriate managers; that workers in a variety of occupations believe in career sabotage; that people need the services not only of medical personnel but also of the increasingly marginalised traditional healers; and that the channels used to send most disease prevention messages are simply not trusted. Considering the acute need for sustainable development, for suitably motivated professionals, for health personnel, and for saving lives, we see our '4R's' blueprint as having real applied value, and this is possibly why student numbers in psychology have quintupled in the past five years and why up to sixty-five percent of major employers now want to employ graduates with a psychological portfolio. Since the recurrent theme in the success of psychology in Malawi is its consumerism, a new and powerful zeitgeist in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Asia Pacific region, and elsewhere in the world, then 'Psychology For Development' seems to be a promising avenue for both development in psychology and development through psychology.
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NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CONSCRIPTION
NAIR, Elizabeth; National University of Singapore, Dept. of Social Work and Psychology, Singapore.
Conscription of all able-bodied 18 year old males, for two years of military service, has been institutionalized in Singapore for two and a half decades. What are the social psychological and group dynamics processes in conscript service that have played a prominent part in national development?. To evaluate the impact of this far-reaching legislation, twenty Individual interviews were conducted wlth a cross-section of military commanders in the Singapore Armed Forces. The interviewees held command appointments ranging in seniority from battalion, brigade and division levels to General Staff at headquarters. They were drawn from the various arms in the Land Forces, including infantry, armour, artillery, combat engineers and signals. All had direct contact with conscript soldiers at various stages in their mllltary careers. Each interview lasted for about an hour, adhered to a semi-structured format and was tape-recorded. Verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed for recurring themes and consistencies in the views expressed. The findings reflect a general lack of awareness of the intention for conscription to provide a national developnent role. However, the results of implementation evidently have been successful in achieving this objective.
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PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
AGER, Alastair K.; Queen Margaret College, Edinburgh, UK.
Sustainable development requires careful analysis and deployment of human - as well as economic and material resources. Development programmes, however, seldom pay close regard to relevant psychological principles regarding behavioural change and development. Using examples from development initiatives in Malawi, Southern Africa (both failed and successful) this paper describes a range of analytical structures which may be used to give insight into the management of human change processes during the course of development initiatives. These structures include analysis of functional behavioural contingencies, appraisal of relative risk, categorical needs analysis, and discourse analysis of personal narratives.
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MEXICAN BUSINESSMEN OPINION ABOUT THE NORTH AMERICA FREE TRADE ARRANGEMENT.
BRAHAM V. Jorge; SERRANO C. Carlos; MORALES R. Oscar; Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
The purpose of this study was to know the opinion Mexican businessmen have about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The emphasis was on detecting the fortresses and weaknesses the CEO's find in their organizations as well as the strategies they have defined to face NAFTA. In addition, we suggested they to draw information that could be relevant to the organizational psychologist to better understand and intervene in the Mexican companies as a catalyst of the change process, specifically with the areas concerning Human Resources Management. The study covers 90 companies of different sizes and lines of business located in Mexico City. Following is a summary of the main findings:
All exporting companies consider extremely important to count with International Indexes about Human Resources.
100% of the polled companies consider NAFTA a benefit to the country but only 88% consider it beneficial to their firms. Most of the companies that consider NAFTA a benefit have their fortresses and weaknesses detected, while 73% of them have defined a strategy to face it. The most important were: Human Resources and Quality on Product or Service.
In regard to the importance of the Human Resources to face the NAFTA, 97% of the companies consider it as essential. The Human Resources areas more frequently chosen were: Leadership, Communication for Quality, Attitudes Change, Strategic Planning, Total Quality Philosophy, Continuous Improvement, etc.
The areas of major importance to the Human Resources Index were: Training and Development and Total Quality in Human Resources. 94% of the companies consider it important to know about quality practices in other countries.
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PYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH AND LONG TERM UNEMPLOYMENT AMONGST YOUNG PEOPLE: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT AND NON-EMPLOYMENT FACTORS.
MEAN PATTERSON, Lindsey; Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
This paper reports the main findings from a longitudinal study of a population of long term unemployed young people. The study investigated the relationship between psychological health, long term unemployment, mediating or moderating factors, and the impact of later employment and training experiences. The research explored these relationships using concepts derived from adolescent identity development and unemployment research. The notion that young people experiencing continual unemployment since leaving school are a psychologically unique population theoretically and experientially (compared to other unemployed populations) is posited, with evidence from the study provided in support of this
assertion. The implications of the results are discussed mainly in relation to two key areas:
i. the nature of the factors found to influence psychological health (during unemployment and the impact of subsequent employment, training or continued unemployment), particularly with respect to the "occupationality" of factors;
ii. the applicability of psychological theories of unemployment to populations of young people without experience of employment.
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MENTAL ILLNESS IN INDIA AND BRITAIN.
LAUNGANI, Pittu; South Bank University, London, U. K.
Much has been made of the notion of cultural relativism in understanding mental illness. The viability of this notion will be critically examined. This paper argues that mental illness, despite its variations, is an extremely disturbing universal human experience. However, the types of disorders, the incidence and the severity of disorders vary markedly across cultures. To understand mental illness and identify it across cultures, it is necessary to examine the problem against the backdrop of the dominant value-systems which prevail in any culture at a given point in time.
The paper argues that there are salient value-systems to which cultures subscribe, which in turn influence our understanding, diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, and consequently the allocation of resources and the provision of care within the community.
It is argued that Western cultures in general (British culture in particular) is distinguished from Eastern cultures in general (Indian culture in particular) in terms of the following four theoretical dimensions:
The nature of each of these dimensions, the beliefs, attitudes, values and bahaviours subsumed within it, is explained, and its relevance to understanding the problems of mental illness is clearly articulated. It will be demostrated that the dimensions to the left are applicable more to people in Western cultures and those to the right to the people in Eastern cultures. The validity of the above dimensions has been empirically demonstarted.
The differential value-orientations between Western and Eastern cultures have a strong bearing on the problems of diagnosis and on the treatment of mental disorders, which in many instances are the outgrowth of the available resources and the acceptance of tradtional arrangements unique to each culture.
Finally, the paper will consider the methods by which mental health professionals can work conjointly and meaningfully with the ethnic minorities from the Indian sub-continent living in Britain.
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EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN BRASIL
RIBERO DE MENESES, Rosaura; and ATALLA, Márcia; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The evolution of psychological research in Brazil in the period 1977-1991 was studied. Results of approximately 2000 summaries of researches presented at the annual meetings of the Brazilian Association for the Improvement of Science were compared. Data were classified under the following variables labels: Year of Research (1977-1991); Area of Psychology; Brazilian Regions; Administrative Status (public-private); Financial resources (financed or not); Subjects or Utilized Material (human beings, animals, plants, minerals, books and theories); Theoretical Models (phenomenological-existential, depth psychology, cognitive, radical behaviorism, cognitive behaviorism, other). The Statiscal Package for the Social Science was used in the analysis of data. Tptañ amd èrcemtages were compared. The main results are the following: In the focused period a) reserches with animals subjects received significantly more financial support than those with human beings; b) researches concentrated in state universities of one State of Brazil, namely, Sao Paulo; c) official institutions respond for more than 90% of Brazilian research.
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ETHNICITY, IMMIGRATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES
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INFLUENCE OF RACE AND LANGUAGE FLUENCY IN THE ACCEPTANCE OF IMMIGRANTS IN FRANCE
Q.E. SIM, Catherine; Tilburg University, The Netherlands
This study investigated factors that determine the social acceptance of immigrants in France. Any type of immigration is both difficult for the immigrants and hosts. It is hypothesized that (1) assimilation into a society is possible through mastering the language of the host country and (2) actual contact with a certain group of immigrants will affect the level of social acceptance of members from that particular group. In a quasiexperimental study, a sample of 237 French third-grape students (54% girls and 46% boys with a mean age of 14) used the Bogardus Social Distance Scale to rate their social distance vis-a-vis a fictive immigrant. Independent variables were the fictive immigrant's race (Chinese versus North Africans), his fluency in the French language (low versus high), and subject's personal contact with the respective immigrant group (contact versus no contact). Subjects perceived less social distance toward the Chinese immigrant as compared to North Africans. Fictive Chinese immigrants who were fluent in French were preferred to those who were not fluent. As for the North Africans, the opposite held true. Fictive North Africans who were fluent in French were not as well accepted as those who were not fluent in the language. While subjects who had contact with North Africans accepted better North Africans who speak good French, subjects who had no contact with North Africans preferred those who speak bad French.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF A PRE-DEPARTURE ORIENTATION FOR A BETTER ADAPTATION PROCESS AFTER IMMIGRATION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF GUATEMALAN REFUGEES IN CANADA.
FANDINO-CIRILLI, Cristina; University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Canada receives an annual influx of 250.000 immigrants from all over the world. Many of these newcomers are refugees. As part of the Latin American refugees who have come to Canada, Guatemalans began arriving in the mid 1980's, fleeing from the horrors of the political repression in their native country. Still a great number of these refugees come directly from Guatemala to Canada as "Canadian Government sponsored refugees". After settling in Toronto, they have to adjust to the Anglo-Canadian society.
Although Guatemalans bring part of their rich culture with them such as their language, their religious traditions and their philosophy of life, unfortunately due to the immigration process, all their richness could also become a source of misunderstandings leading to difficulties in their adaptation process to the Anglo-Canadian culture. Migrating and resettling in a new country where values and social codes are quite different from the ones people have been raised with, puts emotional pressure on the newcomers. Culture shock could be the psychological response to such change.
Guatemalans seeking refugee status at the Canadian Embassy in Guatemala have very little information about Canada and virtually no clear knowledge about the implications of their decision to migrate which includes future cultural, social and economic changes after their arrival and the concomitant psychological adjustments.
Literature has stressed that pre-departure orientation can help reduce the stress of immigration and can facilitate the adjustmentthe new host society. This explanatory study is an attempt to discover what changes the Guatemalans experienced after their arrival to Canada, which ones affected them the most, their awareness of these crucial changes prior to leaving Guatemala and the information they considered useful to be transmitted to prospective Guatemalans for a better resettlement in Canada.
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BEING CITIZEN OF THE WORLD: IS IT A RESULT OF A MIGRATORY EXPERIENCE?
MARQUES, Juracy C. and SIMOES SEBBEN, Andrea; PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brasil.
The following research is a describes the emotions of the people who emmigrate. As a result of such experience "the feeling of being from nowhere and belonging to everyplace at the same time appears", what is called being citizen of the world by Grinberg (1990). Six people were interviewed through the Analysisi of Giorgi (1988). This paper also presents the migration experience concerning time and goals (determined or not), the forgoing conditions (before the living, the feeling of the people stayed), the possibility of return or not the fatherland, the relationship with the foreing language and the food, be adaptation and non-adaptation and the readaptation to the fatherland in the case of a possible return.
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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF JAPANESE MEXICANS - THROUGH THE COMPARISON WITH MEXICAN PEOPLE.
TSUNOKAWA, Masaki; Tokai University, Japan.
The author administered the MMPI to 22 male Japanese Mexicans and 26 females who reside in Mexico.
Through the comparison with Mexican norms, Japanese Mexans presented higher points by almost all scales. The difference was greater especially with the males.
The result showed that Japanese Mexicans could have some psychological difficulties. Later, the author interviewed 5 males and 5 females of them finding that almost all had a kind of sense of uncertainty about their national identity.
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CROSS-CULTURAL, CROSS-GENDER ASPECTS OF IDENTITY FORMATION IN SOUTH AFRICAN YOUTH.
TODES, K. and NEL, Z. J.; Rand Afrikaans University, South Africa.
This study aims at describing the possible effect of the variables of culture and gender on the identity formation cf. Afrikaans, English and bilingual speakers among South African university students between the ages of 18 and 21 years. A sample of 300 students were given the Ego Identity Status Questionnaire (EOM-EIS), Life Role Inventory (LR), Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ) and 16-Personality Factor Questionnaire (16-PF). Inferential statistical procedures (MANOVA, ANOVA) were consulted to determine identity formation as a whole, as well as within the seperate cultural gender groups. Through Caronical Correlation Analysis, inferences were drawn concerning the relationships between differing sets of variables, for Afrikaans speaking students.
The main findings of this study highlighted firstly, that culture and gender influence identity formation in terms of identity status, role salience, personality traits and career maturity. Secondly, this investigation emphasised that relationships exist between the EIS and 16-PF, EIS and CDQ, CDQ and 16-PF, EIS and LRI, LRI and 16-PF. The results were comparable with international studies, in that findings were similar in certain areas.
Furthermore, although the cultural backgrounds of Erikson, Marcia and Super differ from those of the subjects studied here, their theories of ego identity can also be applied to an understanding of the process of ego identity formation of South African youth in general.