Organizational Psychology



POSTERS


PO ORG 2

CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL WOMEN

BROOK, Judith A. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

The aim of this study was to examine the career stages of a sample of 200 women and men in professionaVmanagerial positions using developmental models of Super (1984) and Levinson (1986). It was hypothesised that women's career patterns would differ from those of men because of their life circumstances. Males' careers tend to follow a regular pattern at fairly predictable ages eg exploration (up to early 20's), establishment (mid 20's to early 40's), maintenance (mid 40's to 60+) and disengagement (65+ years). In the case of women, the pattern may be quite different and very variable. Differences in work attitudes such as work values, commitment and satisfaction between genders were also compared at different career stages. In a second study, 80 dual career couples were studied to probe gender effects further. Similarities, differences and confiicts in partner's career development stages, career plans and aspirations were exarnined. In particular, the study measured differences in demographic variables (education level, income, job status), attitudinal differences (job and marital satisfaction, work commitment, job and family involvement, career salience) and multiple role effects such as presence of children, spouse or partner supportiveness and workfamily conflict.


PO ORG 3

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN BLUE COLLAR WORKERS

BROOK, Judith A. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Current research eg Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, proposes a process model to explain how occupational stress operates. According to this approach, the individual appraises his or her situation and if it is perceived as stress provoking (for the individual), then coping strategies are initiated. If internal and external feedback indicates that coping mechanisms are unsuccessful (re-appraisal) then further strategies from the individual's repertoire are called into play. The process is a transactional one between the individual and his or her environment. Types of strategies include problem focussed (changing behaviour of individual or changing environment) and emotion-focussed ones (managing the discomfort either somatically or subjectively). The aim of the present study was to generate a taxonomy of coping strategies for a group of service workers in the cleaning industry and compare them with results obtained previously from white collar samples, ie supervisors, administrators, nurses, teachers and church ministers (Dewe and Guest, 1990). Principle components analysis of responses of these manual workers to a 63-item checklist of coping mechanisms revealed five forms of coping, similar to but not identical with, those obtained from the white collar comparison groups. Significantly more problem-focussed rather than emotion focussed strategies were employed with few specific gender differences noted.


PO ORG 6

THE MANAGEMENT OF MANAGERS POSTED OVERSEAS BY COMPANIES IN A NEWLY-INTERNATIONALIZING ECONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE SINGAPORE SITUATION

CHEW, Juniper. National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

There is much research into, and documentation of, the management of internationally-assigned staff in established multinational companies from traditionally expatriating nations, eg certain European countries, the US and Japan. There is less available knowledge about what is happening in companies in newly-internationalising countries.

Indigenous companies from newly-internationalising economies such as that of Singapore are in the initial stages of expansion into a global marketplace. One aspect of this new experience for such companies is the area of managing expatriate personnel, ie, Singaporeans assigned overseas. The poster presentation aims to show the manner in which the managements of these companies have approached this new challenge of managing expatriate staff, many of whom are working overseas for the first time.


PO ORG 9

NÉO-SEXISME : PLUS ÇA CHANGE, PLUS C'EST PAREIL

JOLY, S.; TOUGAS, F.; and BEATON, A.M. Université d'Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Le sexisme dans les années 1990 a pris une forme plus subtile. Les valeurs sociales actuelles rendent impossible l'expression publique d'énoncés discriminatoires à l'égard des femmes. Dans cet article, une échelle servant à mesurer un nouveau type de discrimination envers les femmes, appelé "néo-sexisme)-, a été développée et deux études ont été menées pour examiner certains déterminants et conséquences du néo-sexisme.

Dans la première étude, un modèle examinant les déterminants des attitudes envers l'action positive a été testé auprès d'un échantillon de 130 étudiants de sexe masculin à l'aide d'une analyse des structures de causalité. Selon ce modèle, les considérations d'intérêts collectifs ont un impact sur le sexisme et le néo-sexisme, mais seul le néo-sexisme mène a l'opposition à l'action positive. Les considérations d'intérêts collectifs sont également liés à l'opposition a l'action positive.

La deuxième étude avait pour but d'évaluer l'impact des considérations d'intérêts collectifs et du néo-sexisme sur les réactions à l'action positive, ainsi que sur l'évaluation des collègues de travail de sexe féminin auprès d'un échantillon de 149 travailleurs de sexe masculin. Cette étude porte particulièrement sur les attitudes de travailleurs dans une compagnie où un programme d'action positive a été mis sur pied. Les résultats montrent que le support au programme en place, les réactions à l'action positive en général, et les évaluations des femmes sont influencés par le néo-sexisme et les considérations d'intérêts collectifs. Les implications pratiques et théoriques de ces résultats sont discutées.


PO ORG 11

CONTENT VALIDITY ASSESMENT OF A ORGANIZATIONAL ATTRIBUTES SCALE

DE FRUTOS, Belinda; RUIZ, Miguel Angel and SAN MARTIN, Rafael. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The present paper presents the development of a scale that evaluates the attributes antecedents of employee affective variables, that is, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The scale contains eight subscales referring to the following constructs: Autonomy, Feedback, Skill Variety, Task Significance and Task Importance; Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity; and Organizational Commitment. We formulated a pool of 80 items generated from the theorical constructs and from adapted previous scales.

We assess content validity as a means of selecting the items which acquire better congruence with their theorical bases. We apply Rovinelli and Hambleton (1977) item-objective congruence index to the judgements of 23 specialists with experience in organizational behavior domain. Each specialist judges whether or not each item reflects the content defined by each theorical construct, which ends up being a total of 640 evaluations. The index achieves a maximum value of "1" when all the specialists agree that the item belongs to the intended construct and does not belong to any other. The minimum value of the index is "-1". We establish a cut-off score in .70, when at least 17 experts consider the item congruent to the intented construct. The index value reflects the degree of agreement among the specialists. At the same time contemplates the ratings of an item belonging to more than one construct and decreases the index value. Empirical results are shown.


PO ORG 16

THE VALIDITY OF PERSONNEL SELECTION TECHNIOUES: A REVIEW UNDER A MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL

DE HARO GARCIA, Jose Manuel, Cartagena, Spain.

In this paper, we try to analyze the implications of comparing the validity of personnel selection techniques, under one model of classification that contemplates two dimensions:

l. If the test measure signs or behaviour (samples) and

2.Temporal dimension of the inquire of the tests (past, present or future).

This classification will alow us to check the supremacy of the consideration of the conduct on the signs, and determinate in what dimension we must invert must of the time in the Psychologycal inquiry.

Key words: personnel selection, validity, model.


PO ORG 17

NEW APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEISURE MOTIVATION

GEORGE, Chisteen. Thames Valley University, UK.

Much of the research on leisure motivation has involved the investigation of the existence of leisure needs and assessments of of their satisfaction (see for example Bishop & Witt, 1970or London, Crandall & Fitzgibbons, 1977). Many of these studies have rested on the belief that an increase in available leisure time would make the satisfaction of leisure needs an increasingly important factor in the life satisfaction of an individual. As in organisational psychology, theories of motivation have moved away from a consideration of need satisfaction to concern about the process of motivation, so psychologists studying leisure behaviour are seeking to move away from a concentration on leisure needs to a study of the leisure experience. This paper seeks to identify a number of possible new approaches to the study of leisure motivation.


PO ORG 19

HABILITÉS DU TRAVAIL: UNE PROPOSITION TAXINOMIQUE

BOADA I GRAU, Joan and TOUS I PALLARÉS, Jordi. Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Comme entrée en matière sont traités les élements fonamentaux correspondant aux habilités. A continuation, ces dernières sont largment définies de même que sont établies leurs principales caractéristiques: la structure, la hiérarchie, l'éfficacité, la généralisation, la flexibilité, la disposition, l'automatisation des signes, la mise en practique et la qualité rythmique.

La Taxinomie des Habilités du Travail du Boada (THTB) proposée permet de définir, de détecter, de categoriser et d'observer les habilités essentielles d'apprentissage des tâches profesionelless elles-mêmes regroupées en vastes zones de développement.

Le but de la Taxinomie citée est d'apporter les critères psychologiques qui permettent d'analyser les conduits de trravail afin de réaliser une prévention efficace ainsi que des interventions positiues au niveau du développement personnel et de l'organisation.

Dans le même ordre d'idées, les habilités spécifiques humaines peuvent être augmentées et ampliffiées significativement et ce comme résultat de la mise en practique, de l'expérience et des apprendissages appropriés.

Cette taxinomie présente deux avantages fondamentaux. A savoir: en premier lieu, les habilités sont justifiées, en termes hautement définis et opérationnels permettant l'utilisation d'instruments en ce qui concerne son évaluation; et, en second bien, il s'agit d'une proposition dirigée purement au secteur professionnel.

En fin, la THT est applicable à des procédés organisationels (pour exemple, les ressources humaines) fort variés tels que la comunication, le reclutement, la sélection et la formation du personnel, l'évaluation des rendements, la valorisation des postes et plans d'études.


PO ORG 20

THE "Cl-H-Ti": A REPRESENTATIONAL MODEL

BOADA GRAU, Joan and TOUS PALLARÉS, Jordi. Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Model term in this paper is presented. Outstanding definitions from some authors and the synthesis definition are reviewed. Some functions of Model, as representational inferential, analogical and interpretative are been specifieds. More over Global models -interactionist, adquisition of concepts and assimiliation-, Partial models -ecological- and Representational model -homeostatic- are detailed.

The "Cl-H-Ti" model is defined as a translucen and representational one. This model is composed for laboral behaviors, tasks of intervention and some abilities, which are mediational and intermediate variables.

The structural features of "Cl-H-Ti" model are exposed. In the mediational plane, the configuration of abilities and the application of the Grafos-Theory for this abilities are presented. In the empirical plane, the methodology strategies used and his main decision are detailed. Likewise, his macro and micro constitutive levels are specified.

At last the iconographic representation of the "Cl-H-Ti" model is exposed.


PO ORG 21

A MODEL FOR DE DESIGN OF SELECTION INTERVIEWS ACORDING TO THE JOB

DE HARO GARCIA, Jose Manuel, I.N.E.M., Spain.

This report shows a general proposal in order to design interviews for personnel selection, winthin a three-dimensional framework which considers as variables:

1. The list of behaviours or factors to evaluate.

2. The temporal dimension for the evaluation: pass, present and future.

3. The exploration field: professional, formative and personal-familiar.

Taking this model in consideration you can design interviews made for the purpose and organized to be used by a system of indications and guiding-questions.


PO ORG 22

IS THERE POSITIVE-NEGATIVE ASYMMETRY (PNA) IN REAL-LIFE PERSONNEL ASSESSMENTS?

HONKANIEMI, Laura; KIVISILTA, Pia and SUNDVIK, Lilli. University of Helsinki, Finland.

Many laboratory studies suggest that negative information about targets is overemphasized and prosessed more accurately and separatedly than positive information. The existence of this phenomenon out of laboratory could have an effect on e.g. personal assessments.

The aim of this study was to examine whether PNA can be found in supervisory assessments. A total of 247 superiors and their subordinates (one per each superior) in a large communication services company participated in this study. PNA was studied in two different ways: relative to subordinates' performance level and relative to behavioural dimensions.

The results suggest that when positivity and negativity are defined regarding the subordinates' performance level, negative evaluations divide on a wider area than positive evaluations, hence there's PNA also in natural conditions. When positivity and negativity are defined regarding the evaluated behavioural dimensions there is no PNA. Hence the occurence of PNA in personnel assessments depends on how positivity and negativity are defined.


PO ORG 23

THE SMELL OF WORK.

AMBROSINI, Milena; Dipartimento di Organizzazione e Sistema Politico, Bologna, Italy.

Method:

Subjects

In all, 286 subjects took part in this Study, of which 146 in regular employment at an hospital (doctor, nurse, administrative, in different hierarchic level), 110 participants at two Training Groups (student, trainer) and 30 participants at one panel of research in the university (student, professor, researcher).

Questionnaire

The metaphorical smell (Ambrosini 1993). This is a 15-items inventory, which is rated on a 5-point allways-never scale. The questionnaire is a measure of metaphorical perception of organizational climate. 12 items are about the smell of own organization and 3 items are about the smell of interpersonal relations at work.

Procedure

Subjects were tested separately, when they leave the group (during the Training Group and the Panel), or to come out of the hospital (for the employers).

The questionnaire generated a good deal ot interest.

Results

Factor Analysis

In all, 3 interpretable factors emerged:

1. Negative emotions to the work, wish to leave work,scentless of change.

2. Smell of collegue, boss, collaborator.

3. Positive emotions to the work, to be in own place, wish of news.

Variance

In all 4 data collection, which accounted for over 95% of the variance. The trend of 4 data collection was similar qualitativity, but not quantitativity.

The lowest satisfation of work was in the professors at the university.

Conclusions

In the organization of work is very important to use "light" measure of organizational climate, as metaphorical smell. The perception of subjects is direct and without stererotype.


PO ORG 24

PARTICIPATION IN ETHNIC ASSOCIATIONS.

AYCAN, Zeynep ; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Ethnic associations have important roles in culturally diverse societies. They help to establish healthy links between ethnic groups and broader society. The focus of the present study is on the individuals who choose not to participate in any ethnic association. It is the aim of the study to predict the intention of participation by examining the effects of (a) perceived organizational fuctionality, (b) perceived advantage and disadvantage of becoming a member, (c) acculturation attitudes towards ethnic and host cultures, (d) belief in self- and collective-efficacy, and (e) demographic characteristics. In the literature, these factors have been found to be significantly related with joining voluntary organizations and unions (i.e., Pearce, 1993; Brett, 1980; Premack and Hunter, 1988).

In this study 85 Turkish immigrants settled in New York City have been surveyed. The results of path analyses suggest that belief in collective-efficacy, desire to maintain the cultural heritage as well as adapt the norms and values of the broader society, and evaluation of associations as being functional 1ead non-participants consider membership as advantageous. This consideration, in turn, leads taking action in becoming a member.

This study is able to combine the research findings of unionization and voluntary organizations, and acculturation. It also provides important insights about the functions of ethnic associations.


PO ORG 27

TRAINING FOR SMALL BUSINESS: HOW THE ITALIAN SMALL BUSINESS MANAGER SEES TRAINING.

BELLOTO, Massimo and TOFFOLON, Cristina; Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy.

Italian economy is based principally on small businesses, whose fundamental hinge is the entrepreneur. We think that is basically important to take into consideration this figure, in order to study his attitudes, his expectations, his resistances towards training and towards the part training plays in small businesses' management. Our aim is to think of methodologies and programs that considerer entrepreneur's attitudes towards managerial training. We accume that there is a general suspition towards training, hidden behind a more or less explicit request for short term results. We suppose there is no great difference, in the entrepreneur's mind, between technical training and managerial training and that the ask for training derives more from external causes (economical crisis, competitors' actions), than from a real desire of changement and growth.

We assume that personal and professional qualification is considered important as long as it concerns the state and the status of the business rather than the entrepreneur as a person. Taking a sample of entrepreneurs, the method is the individual and group interview besides the analysis of the results of a scale of perception.


PO ORG 28

NEGOTIATING EFFICIENCY AND NEGOTIATING SKILLS FOR SELLERS AND NEGOTIATORS

CARAMÉS, Rosa. University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

According to Serrano (1993) negotiators are efficient when they achieve individual or organisational goals and, simultaneously, settle the conflict at hand. The model outlined by Mastenbroek (1987) purposes 4 activities required for efficient negotiation: Reach a satisfactory agreement; influence the equilibrium of power; develop a constructive atmosphere and to obtain flexible and dynamics negotiation.

Based on the model described by Mastenbroek, Rodriguez (1990) has designed the CEN (Negotiating Efficiency Questionnaire), which uses the format of Likert's scale with 40 items. This test has proven to be valuable in terms of its high degree of reliability predictability and content validity. The NEGO (Negotiating Skills Test), designed by Poujard and Gatier (1987), consists of 28 difficult selling situations involving written replies, which are categorised according to the instructions outlined in the manual.

The present work provides a comparative analysis of the relationship between salespeople and industrial relations negotiators in reply to both tests.


PO ORG 34

MULTI-LEVEL FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB PERCEPTIONS AND SATISFACTION.

FARR, James L.; MATHIEU, John E. and CALIGIURI, Paula M.; Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

We examine the linkage between job perceptions and satisfaction using data from employees in 2 hospitals. Earlier studies have supported a reciprocal relationship between these two variables (e.g., James, et al., 1978; Mathieu, Hofmann, & Farr, 1993). We extend past research by assessing a model that predicts that the relationship between job perceptions and satisfaction is affected by multiple-level antecedent variables. Levels employed include the organizational unit, the supervisor (immediate work group), and the individual. Organizational unit antecedents included standardization, centralization, and specialization and level of technology, as measured by expert judgments concerning each unit. Supervisor-level antecedents were aggregated employee descriptions of their supervisors' degree of consideration and initiating structure, measured with the Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire. Individual antecedents included employee age, years in current job and with the hospital, education level, and perceived work stress. Employees (N = 332 at Hospital A and 465 at Hospital B) also completed the Job Characteristics Survey (measuring job perceptions related to autonomy, task identity, feedback, task variety and task significance) and the Job Descriptive Index (measuring satisfaction with supervision, pay, security, advancement, and co-workers). The model was tested with structural equation modeling, using LISREL VII. Results generally supported the hypothesized model.


PO ORG 35

PROGRESSIVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND RESILIENCE OF COMPANIES

FERNÁNDEZ LOSA, Nicolás. Universidad de la Rioja, Logroño, Spain.

The idea of human resource management has become topical and controversial. The term suggests that people in any organization are an asset to be upgraded and fully utilized rather than merely a variable cost to be minimized. This in turn implies that the way in which people are managed is a matter of crucial strategic concern.

Increased international competition has produced various initiatives world-wide for new approaches to human resource management despite growing interest among both practitioners and observers, serious, considered and informed literature on the topic has lagged far behind the demand for knowledge. There has been a lack of theoretical analysis and of hard empilical data. This work seeks to correct the neglect on both fronts, with important new contributions from leading teachers and researches in the field.

Technological advances are introducing very important changes in working. The teamwork, the payment after outcomes, the participative management, the increase of working at home (it is possible because of new information sistems) and so on; all of them are doing possible many companies with a new style. We seek to correlate the progressiveness of human resources with the resilience of companies from autonomous community fron La Rioja.


PO ORG 36

ORGANIZATION CLIMATE AND SATISFACTION: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A QUESTIONNAIRE.

FERREIRA, Mário B. and CURRAL, Luis; Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

The Organizational Climate is one of the major issues in the work motivation and satisfaction literature. Considering the organization climate as the shared perceptions, feelings and attitudes of organization members about their practices, it is assumed that the culture of an organization has a strong impact upon the work motivation and satisfaction of its members. According to Camman et al. model (1983) we took into account as intermediate variables of such relationship: a) the individual psychological state (namely is involvement with work and the organization); b) the individual personal characteristics (namely demographics and importance of job facets).

On the basis of these assumptions we develop a 5 point Likert scale, which was responded in five different organizations by representative and stratified samples. To validate this scale we carried out a factorial analysis to test for dimensionality and ANOVA to test differences among the five organizations. An inters subjects agreement analysis for internal consistent was also conducted.


PO ORG 37

STRESS IN HOSPITAL STAFF; RESEARCH TO AID MANAGEMENT ACTION

FIELDING, Dorothy M. St James's University Hospital, UK.

A two-year project investigating organizational factors related to stress in health service managers and their staff is described. Four hundred and ninety-one staff (231 nurses, 70administrators, 52 ancillary staff, 99 professional and technical staff and 38 medical staff) were surveyed. Managers described a range of stressors including physical working conditions, work allocation, time pressures, dealing with relatives and patients work relationships and organizational structures. A detailed survey of Senior Managers using the Organizationa] Stress Index (Cooper, Sloan and Williams, 1988) showed that, while job satisfaction was good, there were high rates of physical and emotional symptoms in this group of staff. Relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate were major sources of stress for all staff groups. For nurses, dealing with relatives and patients and life-threatening situations were particularly important stress factors. Managing the interface between home and work was also a problem, particularly in younger nurses. The results suggested that a range of management interventions needed to he made at three different levels (individual, departmental and organizational).


PO ORG 38

THE JOINT EFFECT OF ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON JOB PERFORMANCE.

FRIED, Yitzhak; BEN-DAVID, H.A. and TIEGS, R.B.; School of Business Administration, Wayne State University, Detroit, U.S.A.

AVITAL, N. and YEVERECHYAHU, U.; Israel Military Industries, Israel.

It is commonly believed that the experience of stress at work (i.e. role conflict and role ambiguity) results in decreased job performance. Yet research indicates that these stressors are weakly related to job performance. Based on McGrath (1976) model we argue that the experience of high levels of one stressor may not be strong enough to tax one's resources. On the other hand, the experience of two or more stressors simultaneously requires additional coping resourceri, resulting in less resources available to job performance, and hence an eventual decrease in performance. Therefore we hypothesized an interaction effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on job performance.

This hypothesis was evaluated in samples from three organizations. One from Israel, and two from the U.S. For each of the samples, role conflict and role ambiguity were assessed by a self-report measures, while job performance was formally evaluated by the employee's supervisors. For one of the U.S. samples, the data was collected at two time periods, one year apart.

We used hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypothesis. The interactive effect of the two stressors was statistically significant in all of the samples. The direction of the interaction was as expected in the Israeli sample (n=359), and one of the U.S. samples (n=58), and opposite to expectation in the other U.S. sample (nt1=53, nt2=55), in both time periods.

The Implicit Stress theory is used to explain the differences in results.


PO ORG 39

OBJECTIVE VERSUS SELF-REPORT DATA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH ON ABSENTEEISM.

HACCOUN, Robert R.; JUTRAS, Sylvie and DESBOIS, Christian; University of Montral, Montreal, Canada.

Given the difficulties encountered in obtaining objective absence data, self-reported absence information is often substituted. However, the scientific implications of that choice are unclear. The purpose of this study was to empirically verify the validity of such self-reports.

One hundred and thirty six French speaking hospital workers were asked to self-report their absence levels for the previous three months. The product moment correlation between the actual absence levels recorded by these subjects for the same time period was highly significant. Regression models linking a number of demographic, attitudinal and perceptual information to each of the absence measures were then constructed. Here, differences were noted both in the predictability of the dependent variables (R2) as well as with the specific variables which contributed to the multiple correlation coefficient. This result indicated that the self-reports and the "objective" dependent measures might best be understood as reflections of differential realities rather than in simple validity terms. A cross validation strategy, where the prediction of one dependent variable was attempted from the model developed from the other dependent variable provided further insight into the meaning and the ambiguity of the self-reports. The consequence of these results for the study of absence as well as for the broader topic of self-report versus "objective" data in psychological research are discussed.


PO ORG 40

JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: A TEST OF THEIR DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY

HERNÁNDEZ, Ana; GONZÁLEZ-ROMÁ, Vicente; ESPEJO, Begoña; FERRERES, Adoración and TOMÁS, Inés. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

INTRODUCTION. In spite of conceptual distinctions between the attitudes of job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment (Kanungo, 1982; Locke, 1976; Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982) little rigurous empirical evidence of their discriminant validity has been reported (Blau, 1985; Borrow, 1983; Brooke, Russell & Price, 1988; Mathew & Farr, 1991). Morover, the substancial associations that have consistently been found between measures of these attitudinal variables and other job-related variables, raise the possibility that the three constructs may not be empirically distinct. Taking into account this, the objective on this paper is to test the discriminant validity of O'Reilly & Chatman's (1986) organizational commintment questionraire and a job satisfaction questionnaire.

SAMPLE. The study sample was made up by 112 employees of different work organizations. 75.0% of the sample were male and 25.0% female. The average age was 36.28 (s. d.= 9.63).

ANALYSIS. Confirmatory factor analysis method was used by means of LISREL 7. First, three nested factorial models were compared. Second, two models were compared to test if the correlations of organizational commintment and job satisfaction latent variables with three correlates were different.

RESULTS. Results showed that there is empirical evidence supporting the discriminat validity between the job satisfaction and organizational commintment measures: the two-factor model provides a significantly better fit to data that the one-factor model (X

2

dif.=188.39; p


PO ORG 41

ISOLATION IN THE WORK?.

IGLESIAS, Edurne; LLANEZA, F. Javier; REMESEIRO, Carlos and MUÑÍZ, José, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The isolation phenomenon has been virtually forgotten by most of the disciplines devoted to the study of the work as indicated by the lack of a common definition and an adequate taxonomy of the different types of isolation in the organizations. Therefore, there is no instrument to identify either jobs in isolation situation or to study them in an integral and differential way. However, it is reasonable to expect that jobs performed in isolation have a number of risks clearly different from those achieved in a group situation. Likewise, it is possible that different degrees of isolation are related to different potential risks. The present work represents an attempt to provide a definition of isolation in the work that enables us both to identify and differentiate jobs performed in isolation. To this end we designed a questionnaire which was applied to a sample of experienced judges (job-analysts with different view) to identify the variables affecting the isolation in the work as well as their corresponding weights on it. The inter-judge consistency, reflected by the Spearman's correlation coefficient has proved to be acceptable.


PO ORG 43

OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION AMONG MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES IN THE PUBLIC SERVICES DEPARTMENT, MALASIA.

KAMIL, Hashim; MARA Instituye of Technology, Selangor, Malaysia.

The major concern of this study was to determine whether overall job satisfaction can be better determined when placed within the context of the individual´s total life situation. The main objective of the study was to examine factors that contribute toward job satisfaction among managerial employees. Specifically, it undertook to determine whether selected individual attributes,

selected non-job related variables are potential determinants of overall job satisfaction.

The sample size of 141 respondents was derived from 215 accessible managerial employees of the Public Services Department (PSD), Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire was selected as a mode of data collection. All instruments used in the hypotheses testing were adaptations of previously developed instruments. Correlational and multiple regression analysis were utilized to analyze the data.

Overall job satisfaction among the managerial employees was found to be high in this study. Sex-role orientation, work-family conflict, family satisfaction, overall life satisfaction, job characteristics and career salience were found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction.

Job characteristics, career salience, work-family and overall life satisfaction were identified as significant determinants of overall job satisfaction. The significant contribution of work-family conflict and overall life satisfaction to overall job satisfaction are clear evidence that overall job satisfaction should be examined within the context of the individual´s total life situation.

The study provided a significant insight into explaining the associated with overall job satisfaction. As a whole, most of the theoretical rationales used in explaining these relationships were supported. The importance of seeking maximum compatability between the individual and the environment as proposed in the theoretical model was generally supported. Hence, part of the adapted theory of work adjustment can serve as a relevant functional model in examining overall job satisfaction among managerial employees in the the Malaysian context.


PO ORG 44

BURNOUT AND JOB SATISFACTION IN SCHOOL TEACHERS AND HEALTH PROFESSIONALS.

KANTAS, Aristotelis, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Maslach's (1986) burnout inventory (MBI) and a job satisfaction scale adapted from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) (Cooper et al., 1988) were employed in a study involving 114 health professionals (60 nurses and 54 doctors ) and 216 school teachers (143 primary school, 73 secondary school). Both scales showed high internal consistency in their translated versions. The factor structure of the MBI as described by Maslach (1986) was replicated. Nurses exhibited higher levels of burnout (as measured by Maslach's three subscales: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) than both teachers and doctors. In the depersonalization scale both doctors and nurses scored significantly higher than teachers. Secondary education teachers experienced more burnout, as measured by the depersonalization and accomplishment scales than primary education teachers.Satisfaction and burnout were found to be associated with age and length of service, older professionals exhibiting more satisfaction and less burnout. Similarly, female professionals were found to exhibit less job satisfaction and higher burnout (on two of the three scales) than their male colleagues. These findings are discussed in the context of the professional and social status and the specific working conditions of each occupational category.


PO ORG 45

RETRAINING OF TECHNICAL PROFESSIONALS: A RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE

KAUFMAN, H. G. Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Career change among technical professional workers has become a way of life that increasingly requires retraining and occupational mobility. The need to retrain technical professionals is driven by rapid changes in the external environment, especially advances in technology, that have resulted in the obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Exacerbating the obsolescence problem are the massive restructuring and downsizing efforts that most large firms have engaged in, resulting in the large-scale elimination of jobs and new requirements for existing positions.

For technical professionals who lose their jobs, a possible option has been to retrain for a new occupation. Individual differences and other factors related to their willingness to retrain are identified, based on research evidence. In addition, government as well as industry-sponsored programs for retraining terminated technical professionals are examined.

The retraining and redeployment of technical professionals as an alternative to termination is discussed and the results of two research case studies are presented, one involving involuntary and the other voluntary participation. Guidelines for designing more cost-effective retraining and redeployment programs are derived from the results of the case study research.


PO ORG 46

ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF SUCCESSFUL RETURN TO WORK OF SERIOUSLY INJURED WORKERS

KENNY, Dianna. Sydney University, Australia.

Using a specially constructed in-depth semi-structured interview protocol, twelve seriously injurec workers were interviewed regarding their post-injury experiences with key stakeholders (employers, workmates, rehabilitation co-ordinators, rehabilitation providers and insurers) in the return to work and rehabilitation process. The results indicated that prescribed practices for managing workplace injuries were not being followed by some employers, and that workers were experiencing early alienation from the workplace. The failure of "occupaational bonding" with the workplace was due to the failure of employers to provide basic information, support, and suitable duties, to the absence of an advocate for the injured worker in his/her workplace, and to the practice of separating rehabilitation from the workplace, a practice which fails to take account of important workplace factors which impact on the outcome of rehabilitation. It was concluded that further education of employers and ablebodied workers regarding the aims of rehabilitation and the provision of suitable duties, was required. The selection criteria, qualifications, training and role specification of the rehabilitation co-ordinator needs further clarification, as do the roles and practices of rehabilitation providers, including medical pratitioners. The involvement of the insurer and the utilisation of insurance doctors was also problematic and was identified as another area for further investigation.


PO ORG 47

FEMALE EMPLOYEE´S PHYSICAL APPEARANCE - A BIASING: FACTOR IN PERSONNEL ASSESSMENT, OR, A SUCCESS-PRODUCING FACTOR IN SALES AND MARKETING?

KIVISILTA, Pia K.; HONKANIEMI, Laura and SUNDVIK, Lilli. University of Helsinki, Finland.

Several laboratory studies show that physical appearance may bias personnel assessments. However, little is known about the effect of physical appearance in real-life situations. Besides physical appearance may have a biasing effect on personnel assessment it could also be related to work success in occupations which have face-to-face interaction. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between 1) subordinate´s physical appearance and supervisory assessment, and also 2) subordinate´s physical appearance and sales efficiency.

A total of 31 in-house saleswomen were assessed by their superiors in a project aiming at selecting specialized sales and marketing staff. For this study, the physical appearance ofsubjects was assessed by impartial jury on the basis of videotaped samples. Sales efficiency was defined as the sales provisions earned by the subject.

As expected, the subject´s physical appearance was related to the superior´s assessment. Furthermore, physical appearance was also connected to sales efficiency. The data supports the idea that physical appearance is not exclusively biasing factor in personnel assessment but can also be a success-producing factor in sales and marketing.


PO ORG 48

SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION AND SELF-PERCEPTIONS OF MANAGERIAL ABILITY

KORABIK, Karen. University of Guelph, Guelph, ON Canada.

AYMAN, Roya. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

Thirty-nine male and 39 female managers and 38 male and 39 female Vice-Principals completed questionnaires that included the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974) and a multidimensional measure of managerial abilities (Evers, 1991). A 2 (Sex) X 2 (Instrumentality) X 2 (Expressiveness) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for both instrumentality, F (41, 95)=1.93, p <.005, and expressiveness, F (41, 95)="1.99," p < .003. Those who were high in expressiveness had person-oriented skills. They saw themselves as being better than those who were low in expressivity at listening, communicating, and interpersonal interaction, p < .003. On the other hand, those who were high in instrumentality had task-oriented abilities. They saw themselves as being superior to those who were low in instrumentality at planning, organizing, decision making, problem solving, time management, leadership, creativity, and visioning, p < .003. Both high instrumentality and high expressivity were related to leaders' competence in managing conflicts, learning new skills, and developing their personal strengths.


PO ORG 49

THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE LEADERSHIP STYLES OF SUPERVISOR AND SHOP-STEWARD UPON THE SUBORDINATES ATTITUDES TOWARD MANAGEMENT AND LABOR-UNION AND THEIR JOB-SATISFACTION.

KUROKAWA, M. & KAMIZONO, Y. & SAKATA, K. & HASSHIGUCHI, K.; Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.

We investigated the combined effects of leadership styles taken by both a supervisor and a union shop-steward upon their subordinates´ dual allegience to the management and the laborunion, as well as their job-satisfaction. Questionnair surveys were conducted twice in 1984 and in 1993 to 9.000 employees from an electric power company in Japan. Results from the 1993 survey showed that the number of the dual alliegents (promanagement/pro-union) had significantly increased while the number of dual anti-allegients (con-management/con-union) had decreased since 1984. We interpreted this phenomenon as a reflection of social trends in current Japan.

Those subordinates who perceived their supervisor's and shop-steward's leadership styles to be both PM type showed higher job-satisfactions and lower work-related stress. Jobsatisfaction was high when the leadership style of supervisor was PM or M. even though that of union leader being P or pm. However, job satisfaction was low when the supervisor has P or pm leadership style while the union leader having M.


PO ORG 50

CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF WORK STYLE PREFERENCE FOR MANAGERS. AN EXAMINATION OF WORK STYLE PREFERENCE PROFILES OBTAINED BY SWISS AND AUSTRALIAN MANAGERS COMPLETING THE TEAM MANAGEMENT INDEX

LAWRENCE, Glyn M.J., Chandler + Macleod, Industrial Psychologists and consultants, Australia.

The study compared the work style preference of German-speaking Swiss business magers and English-speaking Australian business managers as measured by the Team Management Index (1984). One hundred and eighty three Australian business managers who had completed the index in Australia were matched according to age, sex and functional work area with one hundred and eighty five Swiss business managers completing the index in Switzerland. Comparisons of work style preference was determined using the four constructs which together make up the Team Management Index (1984). These four constructs were designed to indicate a work style preference for extraversion-introversion, practical-creative, analytical-beliefs based and structured-flexible work orientations. Discriminant function analysis relevated that the Australian and Swiss managers could be significantly discriminated. Specifically, Swiss and Australian managers could be discriminated in terms of extraversion- introversion, practical-creative and analytical-beliefs work style preferences. While Swiss and Australian managers collectively have preferences for extraverted, practical, analytical and structured work the strength of preferences were not as predicted. Australian managers were predicted to have a stronger extraversion preference than Swiss managers. Swiss managers were predicted to have a stronger practical and structured preference than Australian managers. Both Swiss and Australian managers were predicted to have a similar preference for analytical work. However, results indicated Swiss managers have a stronger preference for extraverted interaction than Australian managers. Australian managers have a stronger preference for practical use of information than Swiss managers. Australian managers also have a much stronger preference for analytical decision making at work than do Swiss managers. Both Swiss and Australian managers have a similar preference for structured organisation of their work environments. The reasons for these differences were discussed according to the cultural differences of the two managerial groups. Recommendations based upon the work style preference differences are made in order to enhance the cooperation between Swiss and Australian managers working on projects.


PO ORG 52

LES ATTITUDES A 1' ENDROIT DES FEMMES GESTIONNAIRES: OU SE SITUE LA MASSE CRITIQUE?.

LORTIE-LUSSIER, Monique; Université d'Ottawa

RINFRET, Natalie; Ecole Nationale D'administration Publique, Québec, Canada.

L'étude, menée a la Fonction publique fédérale du Canada, cherchait a vérifier si les attitudes a l'endroit des femmes gestionnaires s'ameliorent en fonction de l'augmentation de leur nombre. Selon R. Kanter (1977) une masse critique de 35% est nécessaire pour éliminer les stéréotypes sexistes et faire reconnaltre la compétence et la contribution des femmes a la culture organisationnelle. L'enquete a rejoint 453 fonctionnaires de niveaux intermédiaire et supérieur (201 femmes, 225 hommes) dans des ministeres ou la proportion des femmes cadres atteint 9%, 20%, 35% et 45%. Favorables a 9%, les attitudes le sont significativement plus a 20% (p <.01), sans progresser significativement au dela. Meme chose pour l'évaluation de leur statut et de leur contribution a la culture organisationnelle. Selon ces résultats, la masse critique correspondrait a une proportion proche de 20%. Toutefois la force numérique n'est pas le seul facteur déterminant puisque les femmes, les fonctionnaires jeunes, de peu d'ancienneté sont mieux disposes a l'endroit des femmescadres.


PO ORG 53

PREDICTIVE RELATIONSHIPS: PAY SATISFACTION AND PAY DIFFERENTIALS AS MODERATED BY INCOME IN AN EGALITARIAN ORGANIZATION.

Lowenberg, G. and KINGSTON-O'CONNELL, F. G.; University of Wisconsin-Parkside, USA.

O'CONNELL, M. J.; Harris Bank, Chicago, USA.

This study examined the relationship between pay levels in academia, faculty Pay-Desire Satisfaction (PDST), and Appropriate-Pay-Differentials (APDs). Lawler (1971) defined PDST as the "difference between a person's desired pay level and his[her] perception of his[her] present situation" (p. 209). APDs were defined as "what is felt and/or perceived by the individual to be appropriate pay-differentials among positions with different responsibilities

and at different organizational levels" (Lowenberg, 1977). The academic organization was characterized as an egalitarian pay structure defined by its pay levels, pay differentials and rate of progression (Gerhart & Milkovich, 1992). Data were collected from 182 faculty at a midwestern university, 72 completed questionnaires by: (a) indicating what they perceived should be the appropriate pay for different positions in each of eight organizational charts; (b) rating pay criteria according to the importance they believed each criterion actually contributed to faculty pay, and how they believed these criteria should contribute to pay; (c) denoting their salary; and, (d) rating their general pay satisfaction. sSimilar to our previous studies, non linear relationships were found to exist between PDST scores and APDs. Consequently, Correlation Ratios (Eta), polynomial regressions, and ANOVAs were conducted. Results showed curvilinear U-shaped relationship across all PDST and APD levels. Faculty with high and low PDST scores desired greater pay differentials for all levels of pay. Results are discussed in terms of discrepancy theory (Lawler, 1971, 1981, 1991), fair compression (Gerhart, & Milkovich, 1992), and egalitarian pay structure, in comparison to those achieved in a hierarchical organization (Lowenberg, Powaser, & Farkash, 1989).PO ORG 55

VOCATIONAL INCONGRUENCE AND DEFENSE MECHANISMS

MEIR, Elchanan I. Tel Aviv University, Israel.

The congruence theory (Holland, 1985) suggests that fit between vocational interests and one´s job correlates with satisfaction, stability and achievements. Two meta-analyses supported the congruence relation with satisfaction (r=.21). A mean correlation of .41 was found between within-occupational congruence and satisfaction.

The additivity of vocational, leisure and skill utilization congruences revealed correlations with several well-being measures (e.g., burnout, anxiety). Within-occupational shift and search for leisure congruence are recommended as the preferable "defense mechanisms" in case of incongruence.


PO ORG 57

THE ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIVENESS

METSELAAR, Erwin E.; Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Innovation has long been since recognized as a process of primary importance to the development of work organizations. But despite the social and economic relevance little is known about the determinants of succesfull innovation. Practice shows too many premature endings of innovation processes and the question arises as to which organizational conditions can be held responsible for this finding.

To date, research has primarily focussed on the adoption of innovations as a conditio sine qua non for organizations. In contrast, little attention has been paid so far to the implementation and incorporation of innovations in the ongoing activities of a work organization. It is in these phases of an innovation process wnere we expect to find determinants of succesfull innovation. Knowlegde about these determinants might be helpfull to the manager or advisor laden with the mission to bring about organizational change.

The purpose of this paper is to sketch a research design to the assessment of organizational innovativeness, based on the most recent literature on innovation and organizational change. Firstly, critics on the classical innovation literature will be discussed and secondly, an overview will be presented of the research conducted by our research group from 1987 till 1993. Finally, based on our findings, a research design will be presented to construct an instrument to the diagnosis of organizational innovativeness.


PO ORG 58

A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY OF ALTRUISM AMONG YOUTH WORKERS

MOHAN, Jitendra. Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

AGOCHYIA, Devendra, Commonwealth Secretariat, London, UK.

Youth work has become highly professional and socially useful activity considering its relevence to positive & healthy development of youth & its consequences on nation building. One of the major characteristicc of youth workers is expected to be Altruism.

Present investigation administered Altruism Scale Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Study of values, and Adjustment Inventory to 140 Youth administrators from 7 different countriesof Asia. These included youth worker of both the sexes, working in Government and Non-Government organizations.

The results appeared to be quite interesting and with some implications for the training and selection of youth workers.


PO ORG 61

PROFILE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY STUDENT'S WORK

MUÑOZ ADÁNEZ, Alfredo and MARTÍN JIMÉNEZ, Ana María. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The present work is part of a plan aimed for the study of some tests related to the evaluation of the motivation for the work used in personal selection, since the labour motivation is one of the variables, the closest related to the efficiency. We are studing here the Super test The Work Values Inventory, having in mind its ability to discriminate the attitudes and motivations of different groups of people. We are working with two samples: 1) 4th Psychology course students specialized in Work Psychology; 2) 4th course students specialized in Clinic Psychology.

The results obtained support the idea that motivational structures of both groups are different. Security, Supervision Relations, Altruism, Achievements, Mates and Independence factors are underlined in Clinic Psychology students. Economic Profits, Environtment, Prestige and Management factors in Work Psychology students.

These features and their coherence are analyzed in relation with the work that present students must carry out in the future, and we also talk about the importance we achieve in the personal selection by using precise profiles of attitudes and motivations according to the kind of work.


PO ORG 62

PROFILE OF THE PERSONALITY OF THE COMMERCIAL FROM THE TEST 16PF

MUÑOZ ADÁNEZ, Alfredo and VALLEJO BLÁZQUEZ, Guadalupe. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Based on previous investigations, we can establish the hypothesis that people who carry out commercial functions are characterized, according to Cattell's 16PF test, by a high mark in the A, B, C, F, G, H, and Q3 factors, and by a low mark in the I, L, O, Q1, and Q4 ones.

The hypothesis is confirmed by the results as regards to the factor A, C, F, G, H, O, and Q3, and not regarding the B, I, L, and Q4 ones. The obtained data shape a profile which is coherent with the needs of the commercial function. Sellers would be characterized for being open, affectionate, sociable, friendly (A=7); emotionally balanced, mature and realist facing life and problems (C=7); they would be also happy, lively, confident, enthusiast, impulsive, communicative, and optimistic (F=7); at the same time they would be persistent, nice with people and subject to rules (G=8); enterprising, socially claring, solid, talkactive, naturaland non inhibitor (H=7); finally they would be imaginative, and creative (M=7); calm, quiet, self-satisfied, flexible, and having a very small tendency to feel guilty (0=3); socially adapted, controlled, and only being on the watch for his own image (Q3=7).

Results are commented and it is given an explanation about the possible reasons why some parts of the hypothesis are not fulfilled.


PO ORG 63

UTILITY ANALYSIS BASED ON TENURE

MYORS, Brett. The University of New South Wales, Australia.

An alternative utility equation based on tenure is presented and compared with the traditional Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser model. Herriot (1988) has argued that the emphasis on dollar-value found in traditional utility analysis ignores the individual perspective of employees and argues that a complete theory of selection should embrace these perspectives as well as the organisational interests of dollar-value productivity. Herriot's concerns may be addressed by the alternative tenure-based equation. According to the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment (Dawis & Loftquist, 1984), tenure captures employee's interests, needs and values as well as the familiar organisational concerns. An added advantage of the new tenure-based equation is that it uses tenure as the individual differences parameter and thereby avoids the problematic parameter, SDy. In many organisations, SDt may be calculated by applying the standard formula to routine personnel records.

The published studies of Schmidt, Hunter, McKenzie and Muldrow (1979); Bobko, Karren and Parkington (1983); and Greer and Cascio (1987) are reanalysed using the tenure-based approach and tenure-based utility was found to agree strongly with results from the traditional equation. These findings were confirmed on a large sample of new data (N = 1,388).


PO ORG 64

POUR UNE PSYCOLOGIE DES PROFESSIONS. CONTRIBUTION DE RECHERCHE SUR UNE ORGANISATION DE CONTROLE SOCIAL.

NENCI, A. M.; DEL MIGLIO, C.; GUGLIELMO, A. and NICOLE, S.; Universitá degli studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

On présente une recherche sur la représentation en tant que connaissance que le sujet a de soi. La méthode d'enquete employée est une sorte de taxonomie de la personnalité qui a été developpée suivant l'approche psycholexicale. L'instrument, qui se compose d'une liste d'adjectifs, permet de distinguer, de mettre en ordre et de classer des caracteristiques individuelles d'après 5 (cinq) dimensions-base (Big-Five): Conscience, Extroversion, Tendance au Calme, Comportement Hostile, Conformisme.

L'emergence des Big Five est étudiée dans un groupe (N=200) d'agents de la Police d'Etat pour ce qui est: age, sexe, ancienneté de service, position dans l'organisation et l'attribution de signification a la condition de travail.


PO ORG 65

CHANGING APPRAISAL INTO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: THE CREATIVE TENSION BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICAL PRESSURES.

NORTH, Derek; Occupational Psychology Branch, Employment Service, United Kingdom.

Theorists argue that...

- most current appraisal systems are inefficiently trying

to meet too many organisational demands;

- development appraisal suffers if done with performance

appraisal;

- performance related pay is problematic;

- simple appraisal systems are best;

- appraisal should be part of performance management;

- training should centre on skills.

One practitioner has argued that:

- appraisal is inherently inaccurate;

- new systems should be driven by the organisation's main

business objectives;

- new systems are as much about damage limitation as

improving organisational performance.

Personnel managers, however, want complex systems that:

- support performance pay;

- identify potential high-fliers;

- support their commitment to HRD;

- identify inefficient employees;

- provide succession planning information;

- identify development needs;

- help the organisation become more business focused;

- assess promotability annually;

- are monitored for adverse impact;

- are understood and trusted by employees;

- fit the parent organisation's systems.

Senior managers' demands usually complicate systems, ignoring faults in appraisal systems under which they've progressed.

The result is:-

- complicated forms;

- massive incomprehensible manuals;

- an unwieldy, disliked system.

The poster charts the creative tension between theory and organisational demand, and discusses the merits of the system that emerges as the UK Employment Service replaces its traditional civil service system for a business-focused, competence based approach.


PO ORG 66

USING CRITICAL INCIDENT ANALYSIS TO ASSESS STRESS-COPING BEHAVIOURS IN WORK SETTINGS

O´DRISCOLL, Michael P. University of Waikato, New Zealand.

COOPER, Cary L. UMIST, England.

Several instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies used by individuals during stressful transactions, but many of these focus on global styles of coping, rather than the specific behaviours which individuals engage in. Also, coping measures often do not attempt to link coping responses with specific stressors, nor do they gauge the outcomes of different actions taken by an individual experiencing stress. This paper explores the use of critical incident analysis (CIA) to identify stress-coping behaviours. CIA focuses on three components of a stressful transaction: the stressor(s), the behavioural responses of the individual, and the consequences of those responses. While some previous studies have utilized this technique, the present paper reports on research which examines these three components, in the arena of work-related stress. Advantages and limitations of CIA for exploring coping with job stress are highlighted.


PO ORG 67

THE IMPLICATIONS OF USING PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTEGRITY TESTS FOR OLDER WORKERS

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

VISWESVARAN, C. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

Employers have long been concerned with honesty, integrity, dependability and trustworthiness of their employees. One way to screen out job applicants on the basis of trustworthiness involves using paper and pencil integrity tests. Most recently, Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (1993) using psychometric meta-analysis showed that integrity tests have useful, generalizable validities witht various job related criteria, including supervisory ratings of job performance, and theft and broad counterproductive behaviors on the job. The purpose of this research was to determine the consequences of screening applicans using integrity tests for older workers. We investigated whether integrity test scores correlate with age. All published and unpublished studies reporting correlations between age and integrity test were obtained and coded. Psychometric meta-analysis was used to cumulate the correlations. The results indicate that older individuals tend to score higher than younger individuals on integrity tests. The observed correlation between the continuous variable of integrity and age is .16. These results, that younger individuals score somewhat lower on integrity tests, may be possibly due to experimentation and youthful indiscretions that characterize late teenage years and early adulthood. Overall, from a practical point of view using integrity tests in personnel selection would result in increased hiring rates for older individuals.


PO ORG 68

USING BIG FIVE DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY, INTEGRITY AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TO PREDICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

VISWESVARAN, C. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

Industrial-organizational psychologists have known for a while that the best predictor of job performance across situations and settings is cognitive ability (Schmidt, Ones & Hunter, 1992). However, identifying additional psychological predictors of job performance for personnel selection has been relatively more difficult (Hunter & Hunter, 1984). However, recently investigations of the validity of Big Five dimensions of personality and integrity have indicated that personality related measures have higher validity than previously believed (Barrick & Mount, 1991; Ones, Viswesvaran, Schmidt, 1993). In this research we investigate the following question: What levels of operational validity can be obtained by combining measures of cognitive ability, the Big Five dimensions of personality (as measured by traditional personality instruments) and integrity (as measured by integrity tests) for personnel selection?

This practicaI question can be answered if the correlations among integrity tests, cognitive ability and the Big Flve dimensions of personality (as measured by personality inventories) are known. These correlations were meta-analytically obtained. Then the shandard formula for a multiple correlation was used to calculate the multiple correlation for supervisoryratings of job performance, when the predictors are tests of cognitive ability, integrity tests and Big Five scales from personality inventories. The results indicate that there is little incremental validity to be gained from adding Big Fve scales to a battery that already contains tests of cognitive ability and integrity.


PO ORG 69

ARE PEER RATINGS AFFECTED BY FRIENDSHIP BIAS?

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

VISWESVARAN, Chockalingam. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

The use of peer ratings in organizations has increased over the years. Peer ratings are hypothesized to provide a different perspective than those of the supervisors. To the extent peer ratings assess the same behaviors assessed by supervisors, the correlation between peer and supervisory ratings will be high (i.e. have convergent validity). Most of the previous research have focused on the convergent validity of peer ratings. Convergent (between peer and supervisory ratings) validity is important only when peer ratings are considered in lieu of supervisory ratings. To assess the extent to which peer ratings provide a perspective, different from supervisors but valid for job performance, we have to compare the correlation of peer ratings with the correlation between supervisory ratings and productivity measures. We collected all studies that reported correlations between peer and/or supervisory ratings with productivity measures. We found three studies reporting correlations between peer ratings of overall job performance and productivity measures. The total sample size was 276 and the true score corrected for measurement error in the two variables was .66. On the other hand, we found 43 studies involving a total sample size of 8,467 individuals reporting a correlation between supervisory ratings of job performance and productivity. Psychometric meta-analysis was used to cumulate the results and the true score correlation was .35. Thus, the correlation between peer ratings and productivity was found to be higher than the correlation between supervisory ratings and productivity. Peers seem to take into account factors over and beyond productivity in rating the performance of others.


PO ORG 70

QUALITY AND QUANTITY IN JOB PERFORMANCE A META-ANALYSIS

VISWESVARAN, Chockalingam. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

ONES, Deniz A. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

Increasingly more attention is being paid to quality of work done in organizations. Many programs have been designed to promote quality and reviews of the literature exist that document the effects of the programs. Though most of the programs have been found to have positive effect on the quality of products, the relationship between quality and quantity has also interested practioners. For example, Hill & Freedman (1992) present an interview with John Wallace winner of the Baldrige award for quality in 1990 who mentioned some negative aspects of being quality driven as well as positive. Further, in our practice we encounter many managers who question whether quality and quantity are positively or negatively correlated. We searched the literature for studies in which both quantity and quality of production were measured. We located 13 studies involving 2.731 individuals.

Psychometric meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990) was used to cumulate the results across studies and establish the true relationships between the variables of interest. Artifact distributions were used to correct for unreliablity in the two measures. The results indicated that quanity and quality of production were positively correlated. The estimated true score correlation was .37. However, the estimated true score standard deviation was .27 which resulted in the inclusion of zero in the 95~0 confidence interval around the mean correlation. We present the implications of our findings for designing performance appraisal systems in our paper.


PO ORG 71

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUPERVISORY RATINGS OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND LEADERSHIP

VISWESVARAN, Chockalingam. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

The role of communication skills is stressed in industrial-organizational literature as the key to solving many problems. For instance, it is argued that good communication skills are necessary for leadership (though the definition of good leadership involves more than good communication skills). However, in industrial settings we do not know whether managers believe that good communication skills are required for leadership. This paper examines the extent to which supervisors rate individuals highly on leadership, also rate them highly on communicatic skills.

We searched the literature for studies conducted in the workplace in which the individuals were rated by their supervisors on both communication skills and leadership skills. We located 35 studies involving 10,861 individuals. We used the principles of psychometric meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990) to cumulate the results across studies. Artifact distributions were used to correct for unreliability in the two measures.

The results indicated that supervisors perceived communication skills as necessary for good leadership. The estimated true score correlation was .90. Issues of construct validity and halo are addressed in our paper. We also present the implications for designing performance appraisal systems and training programs for the development of leadership and communication skills.


PO ORG 72

BIG FIVE DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY AND DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE IN EXPATRIATE SELECTION: A POLICE CAPTURING STUDY

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

VISWESVARAN, C. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

REISS, Angelika. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

We examined the managers' perceptions of expatriate success relatedness of the Big Five personality dimensions. Mangers made judgments about the overseas employment success of 32 hypothetical expatriates based on characteristics associated with the Big Five personality dimensions (Emotional Stability, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience). Managers evaluated expatriates for different cultures. The culture variables was manipulated using Hofstede's dimensions of culture (Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/ Femininity). Policy capturing was used to determine the relative importance of the personality dimensions in different cultures. In addition, based on explicit rankings of the five attributes, it appears that managers have only a moderate degree of insight into their decision models when assessing expatriate characteristics of suitability for overseas assignments.


PO ORG 73

EFFORT AND JOB KNOWLEDGE: ARE THEY TWO DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF JOB PERFORMANCE?

VISWESVARAN, Chockalingam. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

Campbell (1990) postulates that performance on any task is dependent on three factors: procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge and effort. Further, Schmidt, Hunter and Outerbridge (1986), Schmidt and Hunter (1992) indicate that job knowledge is an important determinant of performance. If these three components of performance have low intercorrelations, then performance appraisals should include all three components. If on the other hand, the three components are highly correlated, measuring one or two of the components will probably result in correct personnel decisions. We searched the literature for studies in which effort and knowledge were assessed. We located 36 studies (N=7,232) where supervisors rated individuals, on job knowledge and effort. Psychometric meta-analysis was used to cumulate the results. The true score correlation was .86. We also found 6 studies (N=1,338) where peer ratings of effort and job knowledge were available. The estimated true score correlation was .95. To test the hypothesis whether the high correlations were due to halo, we looked for studies that (a) used objective measures, or (b) studies where the two ratings being correlated are from different raters. We found no studies where correlations between two supervisors, one rating effort, the other knowledge were reported. However, we found four studies (N=386) reporting correlations between peer ratings of effort and supervisory ratings of job knowledge. The estimated true score correlation was .20. Similarly, we found three studies (N=325) where peer ratings of job knowledge and supervisory ratings of effort were correlated. The true score correlation was .09. Though these low correlations indicate that effort and job knowledge do not necessarily go hand inhand, in an organizational setting where performance appraisals are obtained from the same individual, there is little value in trying to differentiate between the two.


PO ORG 74

ABSENTEEISM AND SUPERVISORY RATINGS OF JOB PERFORMANCE

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

VISWESVARAN, Chockalingam. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

Several causal mechanisms have been postulated regarding how absenteeism affects performance evaluations. One causal mechanism postulates that supervisors use absenteeism as an indicator of performance. Further, frequent absences are expected to lead to disruption of work assignments, evoke annoyance in supervisors, and thus result in negative performance evaluations. Thus, according to this mechanism there should be a negative relationship between absenteeism and supervisory ratings of job performance. A competing mechanism posits that absenteeism results in stress reduction and may lead to improved performance. Empirical verification of this mechanism depends on finding a positive relationship between job performance and absenteeism. To establish the true score correlation between absence and performance, we used the Schmidt-Hunter meta-analytic method. Studies reporting the correlation between supervisory ratings of job performance and organizational records of absenteeism were obtained (37 studies, N = 13,302). The results indicated that supervisors ratings of job performance covaried with absenteeism. The estimated true score correlation was .10. However, the true score standard deviation was .19.

We also examined the partial correlation between absenteeism and supervisory ratings of job performance after productivity is partialed out to determine whether support could be found for the "annoyance hypothesis".


PO ORG 75

CORRELATES OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTEGRITY TESTS

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

SCHMIDT, Frank L. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

VISWESVARAN, C. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

To control theft and other disruptive behaviors on the job, employers have used pre-employment integrity tests to screen applicants. Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (1993) showed that pre-employment integrity tests have useful, generalizable validities with various job related criteria, including supervisory ratings of job performance, and theft and broad counterproductive behaviors on the job. The aim of this research was to offer precise answers to the question "what are the personality correlates of pre-employment integrity tests?" To systematically examine the personality correlates of integrity tests, the Big Five dimensions of personality were used. We investigated whether integrity tests correlate with measures of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion, openness to experience, and emotional stability. Correlations between integrity tests and the Big Five Personality dimensions were computed using data from students from a large US university and job applicants for skilled manufacturing jobs at Midwestern plants of a Fortune 500 company (N= 1,365). Results indicate that a composite of Conscientiousness is the strongest correlate of integrity tests (p=.91). It seems that individuals who are dependable, responsible and who follow rules are also high on integrity tests. However, composites of Agreeableness and Emotional Stability are also correlated with integrity tests scores (p's of .61 and .50, respectively). The composite of extroversion correlates .31 with a composite of integrity test scores, indicating that there is a somewhat weak positive relationship between extroversion and integrity. Finally, a composite of Openness to Experience correlates .08 with integrity, indicating a minimal overlap between the two constructs.


PO ORG 77

EXPLORING MODELS OF WORK ABSENCE BEHAVIOUR APPLICABLE TO AIRLINE EMPLOYEES

PRUSER, Kim. The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

There is considerable evidence to indicate that absenteeism is both widespread and a major cost to employers in Australia and overseas. It has been estimated that the total number of working days lost through absenteeism in Australia may be as high as 30 million annuallyand that the cost to Australian employers could be over $7 billion (Wooden, 1992). The causes of absenteeism have received a lot of speculation over the years with several theoretical models being suggested (eg Brooke & Price, 1989; Nicholson, 1977; Rhodes & Steers, 1978, 1990). These models include variables such as: job satisfaction, job motivation, company commitment, supervisory support, routinization, absence culture, union commitment, external responsibilities, and policy conditions. It appears that some variables are common across many work environments (eg job satisfaction, external responsibilities), however individual work places may have variables that are unique to their specific working conditions. The Airline Industry provides a work environment where change always occurs, and a flight attendant works under unique working conditions which include; shift work, handling emergency situations, continuous flying conditions and adjusting to climatic changes. The research paper presents a theoretical model suitable for flight attendants which takes into account these unique working conditions and which was developed from group discussions and individual interviews using the repertory grid technique.


PO ORG 79

JOB EXPERIENCE AND JOB PERFORMANCE: A CONCEPTUAL AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW

QUIÑONES, Miguel A. Rice University, USA.

FORD, J. Kevin. Michigan State University, USA.

TEACHOUT, Mark S. USAF Armstrong Laboratories, USA.

The construct of job experience has been very pervasive in the field of applied psychology. It is widely accepted that there is a positive relationship between experience and performance. This belief is highlighted by the almost universal requirement of job experience for making hiring decisions. Despite the wide acceptance of experience as an important construct in applied psychology, little conceptual and theoretical development has been forthcoming. Researchers oftentimes use a variety of measures which they call experience. This lack of theoretical development makes it difficult to compare results across studies and develop testable hypotheses regarding the role of experience in affecting job performance. This paper addresses these concems in two ways. First, a theoretical model of the experience construct is developed which draws upon the existing literature. This model takes into account various measures of experience as well as levels of analysis issues. Second, the theoretical framework is used to guide a meta-analytic review of the experience literature. Specifically, the meta-analysis examines the relationship between job experience and job performance as it relates to the various measures outlined by the model. Implications for practice and research are discussed.


PO ORG 80

OVERCOMING INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

REISS, Angelika D. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

We investigated the problem of negative stereotyping, which is a significant barrier to communication and understanding among people of various cultures. This area is increasingly important in a time when globalization has evolved from a theoretical concept to practice. We examined the impact of information and education on negative stereotyping. More specifically, we investigated whether cross-cultural instruction results in reduction of negative stereotyping. In addition, we tested whether personality characteristics, intelligence and the cultural variable uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 1980) moderate the relation information received and reduction of negative stereotyping. The variable uncertainty avoidance is taken from Hofstede's four dimension theory of culture - power distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. The personality dimension of "Openness to Experience" was hypothesized to be linked to increased reduction of stereotyping. The cultural variable of "uncertainty avoidance" was selected among from other dimensions of culture because cultures that have high scores on this dimension are characterized as active, aggressive and intolerant. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.


PO ORG 81

UNDERSTANDING VIOLENCE AT WORK

REISS, Angelika D. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

VISWESVARAN, C. Florida International University, Miami, USA.

Violence in the workplace is on the rise in the US. Violent acts at work include but are not limited to homicides, rape, assault, and severe harassment. In the US, there were more than 11.OOO violent incidents in the workplace last year (National Safe Workplace Institute, 1992). There appear to be two different schools of thought regarding violence at work. The first school posits that the nature of work done and the characteristics of the workplace are directly responsible for violence at work. The second school of thought, on the other hand, subscribes to the explanation that employees bring violence to the workplace. The purpose of our research was to understand the causes and consequences of violence in the workplace using psychological research. We developed a conceptual framework that can be used to explain violent behaviors at work. In our paper, we discuss the personality characteristics of individuals who are likely to be violent in the workplace. We also investigate the organizational conditions under which workplace violence is most likely to occur. Some of the variables included in our model are alcohol and drug abuse, threats of layoffs, stress at work, oversupervision, and conflicts with supervisors and coworkers. We also discuss the relative efficacy of alternate methods of reducing violence at work.


PO ORG 82

EFFECTIVE TACTICAL INTERACTION IN AN EQUAL-POWER SITUATION.

REMESEIRO, Carlos and IGLESIAS, Edurne; Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The aim of this work is to examine in a negotiation process the kind of tactical response which may result more effective to produce the highest joint profit outcome. 70 individuals took part in a typical integrative negotiation task (e.g. Pruitt & Lewis, 1975), in the present case with equal power. Seven tactics were identified (similar to Weingart, Thompson, Bazerman & Carroll, 1990) and grouped by factorial analysis in the following way: Integrative Tactics [IT] (Suggests Tradeoff, Positive Reaction to other's statement, Shows Awareness/Recognition/Concern for other), Distributive Tactics [DT] (Threats or Warnings, Negative Reaction to other's statement), Communicative Tactics [CT] (Asks for Information from the other party, Provides Information to the other party) and Multiple-issue offer [OFM] (Multiple issue, package offer is made). Then a Lag Sequential Analysis (ELAG: Bakeman, 1986) was realized to compare tactical patterns of response between the ten Highest Effective Dyads [HEDs] and the ten Lowest Effective Dyads [LEDs]. The results show that HEDs reciprocated more communicative and integrative tactics from their opponents than did LEDs. They also complement with distributive tactics those OFM from their opponents. In contrast, the communicative tactics from their opponents were responded with distributive tactics by LEDs, and also showed communicative tactics in respond to the distributive ones from their opponents.


PO ORG 83

EFFECTIVE TACTICAL INTERACTION IN A WEAK-DESEQUILIBRIUM POWER SITUATION.

REMESEIRO, Carlos and IGLESIAS, Edurne; Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The aim of this work is to examine in a negotiation process the kind of tactical response which may result more effective to produce the highest joint profit outcome. 50 individuals took part in a typical integrative negotiation task (e.g. Pruitt & Lewis, 1975), in the present case with weak desequilibrium power. Seven tactics were identified (similar to Weingart, Thompson, Bazerman & Carroll, 1990) and grouped by factorial analysis in the following way: Integrative Tactics [IT] (Suggests Tradeoff, Positive Reaction to other's statement, Shows Awareness/Recognition/Concern for other), Distributive Tactics [DT] (Threats or Warnings, Negative Reaction to other's statement), Communicative Tactics [CT] (Asks for Information from the other party, Provides Information to the other party) and Multiple-issue offer [OFM] (Multiple issue, package offer is made). Then a Lag Sequential Analysis (ELAG: Bakeman, 1986) was realized to compare tactical patterns of response between the ten Highest Effective Dyads [HEDs] and the ten Lowest Effective Dyads [LEDs]. The results show that HEDs reciprocated more distributive tactics from their opponents than did LEDs and complemented with communicative tactics the distributive ones from their opponents.PO ORG 84

EFFECTIVE TACTICAL INTERACTION IN A STRONG-DESEQUILIBRIUM POWER SITUATION.

REMESEIRO, Carlos and IGLESIAS, Edurne; Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The aim of this work is to examine in a negotiation process the kind of tactical response which may result more effective to produce the highest joint profit outcome. 60 individualstook part in a typical integrative negotiation task (e.g. Pruitt & Lewis, 1975), in the present case with strong desequilibrium power. Seven tactics were identified (similar to Weingart, Thompson, Bazerman & Carroll, 1990) and grouped by factorial analysis in the following way: Integrative Tactics [IT] (Suggests Tradeoff, Positive Reaction to other's statement, Shows Awareness/Recognition/Concern for other), Distributive Tactics [DT] (Threats or Warnings, Negative Reaction to other's statement), Communicative Tactics [CT] (Ask for Information from the other party, Provides Information to the other party) and Multiple-issue offer [OFM] (Multiple issue, package offer is made). Then a Lag Sequential Analysis (ELAG: Bakeman, 1986) was realized to compare tactical patterns of response between the ten Highest Effective Dyads [HEDs] and the ten Lowest Effective Dyads [LEDs]. The results show that HEDs reciprocated less OFM tactics than did LEDs and responded with communicative tactics the integrative ones from their opponents.


PO ORG 85

DO PERSONS WITH SELF-DECEPTION TENDENCY MAKE A SUCCESSFUL CAREER?

ROININEN, Satu and SUNDVIK, Lilli. University of Helsinki. Finland.

Paulhus (1987) two-factor model of socially desirable responding consists self-deception (SD) and impression management (IM) factors. Previously IM- tendency has been related to leadership emergence. However, SD-tendencys connection to leadership emergence has not been found, although individuals with SD-tendency have same kind of personality traits as leaders (e.g. good self-confidence).

This study examined the relationship between SD-tendency and success in work among leaders. Also connection between some personality traits and SD-tendency were studied. The chosen personality traits were achievement, aggression, risk taking and self-confidence, which all are common trais among successful leaders.

This study was a four-year follow-up conducted in conjuction with personell assessment program aiming at selection of new middle managers. The subjects were 58 superiors and lower-level managers in a big finnish company.

The expectation that SD-tendency would be associated with leadership emergence was supported by the results. When explaning SD-tendency self-confidence was the strongests predictor among the four personality traits. The results suggests that in same circumtanses SD-tendency shoud be considered as a predictor to leader emergence.


PO ORG 86

A COMPARISON OF SELF-AND ORGANIZATIONALLY EMPLOYED MEN AND WOMEN

ROSIN, Hazel. York University, ON Canada.

KORABIK, Karen, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON Canada.

Although self-employed individuals constitute a growing segment of the workforce, little research has focused on this group to date. A recent study (Thompson, Kopelman and Schriesheim 1992) found that organizational commitment and job satisfaction were higher among self-employed than organizationally employed men, but that there were no differences in job involvement. The authors recommended that since the numbers of new businesses started by women is increasing dramatically further studies should include women. This paper presents the results of a study which compared 18 women and 41 men who were self-employed with 299 women and 170 men who were organizationally employed. The subjects were all professionals with MBA degrees who were working full time in a variety of industries. As hypothesized, the self employed individuals had higher levels of job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment than those who were organizationally employed. There were no significant differences between men and women on any of the dependent variables after age, income, and number of children were controlled.

Thompsons, G.A., Kopelman, R.E., and Schriesheim, C.A. (1992). Putting all one's eggs in the same basket: A Comparison of commitment and job satisfaction among self-and organizationally employed men. Joumal of Applied Psychology, 77, 738-743.


PO ORG 87

ACCURACY OF SELF-ASSESSMENT IN PERSONNEL SELECTION

ROUHIAINEN, Pia M. and SUNDVIK, Lilli. University of Helsinki. Finland.

This study investigated the relationship between certain moderators and accuracy of self-assessment. The moderators were ambition, organizational level, motivation, intelligence, sense of reality, self-confidence, age and gender. A total of 94 (78 females, 16 males) applicants for sales positions assessed themselves in natural settings. Accuracy was studied in two different ways: quantity of accuracy of self.assessment (accuracy...inaccuracy) was the traditional way, and, quality of accuracy of self-assessment (underestimation...overestimation) was a new way.

The results indicated that quantitatively accurate self-assessors were most intelligent. The other moderators didn't relate to the quantity of accuracy of self-assessment (accuracy...inaccuracy). However, many moderators related to the quality of ccuracy of self-assessment(underestimation... overestimation). More spesifically, accurate assessors were more intelligent than underestimaters. Overestimaters were more ambitious and more self-confident than accurate assessors and under-estimaters. Overestimaters were more motivated and more realistic than underestimaters and, likewise, accurate assessors were more motivated and more realistic than underestimaters. Finally, male assessors tended to overestimate themselves more often than female raters. The results suggest that future recearch should be noted the quality of accuracy of self-assessment (underestimation... overestimation).


PO ORG 88

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS, JOB SATISFACTION AND COPIN STYLES; THE CASE OF THE BANK PERSONNEL.

SAHIN, N. H. and DURAK, A.; Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

This study is an attempt to explore the job related stress and its effects on the bank

personnel. Personality factors, job satisfaction and coping styles were also among the variables studied. The subjects were middle aged male and female bank personnel, working at various banks in Ankara. The instruments used were the Stress Scale, Type A Questionnare and the Ways of Coping Inventory. The degree of perceived stress is analyzed in terms of gender, bank type, personality type, job satisfaction and the coping strategies used by the

individuals. Implications are discussed on the use of this information within stress

management programs.


PO ORG 90

ATTITUDE CHANGE IN SIMSOC GAMES

SHIMIZU, Jun. Konan Women's University, Japan.

In SIMSOC game (Simulated Society designed by W.A.Gamson, 1979), about forty participants were divided equally into one of four regions. They were required to achieve individual goals and group goals and to keep social indicator high. Not only the resources among individuals and regions are extremely unequal but also communication barriers exist between regions.

Two hundred undergraduates participated two-day SIMSOC games (five sessions). Negotiations between regions were recorded during the game and attitudes of participants toward each region were investigated at the end of the third and the fifth sessions.

These games were composed of two phases: in phase one, while regional dependency and integration are established, social indicator inevitably declines, and in phase two, participants of all regions cooperatively work to raise the indicator up. The effects of negotiation on inter-regional attitude and attitude change between phases are discussed.


PO ORG 91

PRE-EMPLOYMENT DRUG TESTING METHODS FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION IN UNITED STATES COMPANIES

SIMMERING, Marcia J. University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

ONES, Deniz S. University of Houston, Houston, USA.

Poor performance, absenteeism, decreased job satisfaction, injury, and death due to substance abuse is prevalent in the United States work force. U.S. employers have been using drug testing methods to screen out applicants with substance abuse problems. Urinalysis, hair and nail analysis, plasma analysis, biodata, and integrity testing are methods that are currently being used. Each of these has advantages and disadvantages based on their cost, accuracy, consistency, and privacy.


PO ORG 93

USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SAFETY CRITICAL TRAINING

SLAVEN, Georgina.

CHARNLEY, Linda.

HUNT, Alan.

MURTON, Barry.

TU, Yong.

In april 1993 the Offshore Management Research Group were commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive to examine the application of information technology as a medium for presenting safety training to workers on offshore oil and gas installations. The project was composed of two phases: a review of the methods currently used to present safety training; and a comparative evaluation of the different methods used - new and traditional.

This poster will present a summary of the findings from Stage 1, and present examples of computer based training packages developed to present permit to work training. Preliminary results will also be presented on the outcome of the comparative evaluation of computer based training, conventional instructor presented, and video based permit to work and well control training. Outcome variables include: knowledge acquisition and retention, comprehension, and trainee attitude to the type of presentation device. The findings will be presented in relation to current theories of human learning, and the potential contribution presented by new technology as a teaching aid for safety critical training topics.


PO ORG 94

DO THE MANAGEMENT CHARTER INITIATIVE STANDARDS APPLY TO UK BUSINESS MANAGERS?

SLAVEN, Georgina; The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, U.K.

In 1987 two influential reports on the current state of managerial education in the UK identified the need to redevelop management education, to enhance the competitiveness and performance of UK managers (Handy and Constable & McCormick). Following their publication, a new organisation, the Council for Management Education and Development (CMED) was formed, tasked with drafting a Charter of good management practice. Following two years of research, the MCI standards project produced two generic functional models of management (for junior and middle level managers), and integrated them within a nationally recognised qualification, the Certificate in Management.

The MCI model is based on classical management theory (managing operations, finance, people and information). While it is often assumed that management tasks centre around this classical view empirical research, e.G. Mintzberg (1973) and Kotter (1982) reveals that a manager's work is often fast-moving, fragmented and reactive.

This poster will present case studies outlining how three UK oil and gas companies have approached the area of managerial competence assessment. Particular attention has been directed to their use, or otherwise of the MCI standards, and their attitudes to the mci approach of developing generic standards for managers to span across all sectors of British industry. Omissions of crucial competencies, and superfluous additions in the opinion of the companies interviewed will be highlighted.


PO ORG 95

A SISTEMS MODEL OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

SPANGENBERG, Hermann, H. University Stellenbosch Business School, Rep. Of South Africa.

A survey on Performance Management effectiveness among nine major South African business and utility corporations indicated pervasive problems regarding the way in which employee performance is managed.

Based on systems principles and with help from Performance Management practitioners, a systems model comprising inputs, process and outputs, as well as linkages with other organizational systems, was developed. Planning and design were included for the benefit of organizations considering implementation of the system. An initial draft was tested againstrelevant research literature on systems theory, strategy implementation, organization development and human resources management. The revised draft model was circulated to Performance Management practitioners for comment. Based on these imputs, the model was finalized.

Inputs into the Performance Management process include strategic drivers, i.e. strategy, leadership and culture; and internal stakeholders such as management, employees and labour unions. The annual cyclical processes include clarifying vision and mission, goal setting and work planning at all levels, redesigning structures, managing and formally reviewing performance. Outputs comprise short-term issues, i.e. performance and satisfaction as well as longer term criteria, namely organizational adaptability and development. Linkages with systems such as business planning, reward, training and development and career management are included.


PO ORG 96

APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA

SPANGENBERG, Hermann, H. University Stellenboch Business School, Rep. Of South Africa.

Performance Management has been described as managing, measuring and improving performance of employees. In spite of its intuitive appeal, Performance Management has not consistently met expectations. For example, a large survey recently conducted in the UK indicated that Performance Management was at the crossroads, with a development orientation conflicting with a short-term, reward-driven orientation.

In order to develop understanding of reasons behind its variable success, a survey was conducted among 374 middle and senior managers from nine major South African organizations. A questionnaire containing problems experienced with Performance Management, identified during discussions with Performance Management practitioners, was used for this purpose. Problems were categorized according to a systems model of Performance Management that was developed at the same time.

Results indicated that 43 of the 70 problems in the questionnaire were significantly important, covering all the major systems areas.

The following recommendations were proposed: the use of an organization development driven implementation plan; the use of a systems approach to ensure that all the issues that may prevent effective functioning are taken care of; separation of "rewarding performance" from the annual Performance Management cycle because of its frequent negative impact; and intensive training of managers and supervisors in all aspects of the system.


PO ORG 97

COOPERATIVE ACTING IN ORGANIZATIONS.

SPIESS, Erika; Institute of Psychology, Munich, Germany.

A new model of cooperative acting which is to be presented here postulates three different dimensions determing cooperative acting. The dimension of individuality quite directly influences the way of acting.The organization constitutes a second and superior dimension. It influences cooperative acting on the one hand directly - e.g. by designing the work place -, on the other hand indirectly - e.g. the culture of the organization. The highest dimension is taken by culture into which organizations and individuals alike are embedded.

In this model cooperative acting is conceived as a dependent variable which is determined by independent variables such as the individual values, the organizational background and the social and cultural conditions.

On the basis of datas from the longitudinal study "Selection and Socialization of Managerial Candidates", supported by the German Research Association (DFG), the empirical conditions of cooperative acting in organizations were to be investigated. E.g.: Which values further cooperative acting - operationalized by social goals -, which values restrain it? In which organizations can co-operative acting be initiate?.


PO ORG 99

ACCURACY OF SUPERVISORY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

SUNDVIK, Lilli and LINDEMAN, Marjaana. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Supervisory assessments are widely used as a measure of subordinates' work behaviours when deciding about salary rises, provisions or advancement in the organization. However, little is known about the factors predicting accuracy of assessments.

A total of 44 superiors assessed their subordinates (n = 94) in a project aiming at selecting in-house applicants to newly organized sales offices. Accuracy was operationalized as the differende between standardized supervisory assessments and standardized sales amounts of the subordinates.

The results showed that the most accurate assessors were supervisors high in managerial ability. On the contary, superior's sex or age was not connected to the accuracy of assessments. The most accurate assessments were also given of subordinates with whom the superior had worked for the longest time. These results point out that some backround variables should be taken into account when interpreting supervisory performance appraisals.


PO ORG 100

THE USE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

SUTPHIN, Brenda N. and HARRIS, Alastair V.E. Radford University, Radford, VA, USA.

The purpose of this study is to explore the use and effectiveness of humor in various organizational settings in order to gain a better understanding of its' importance. Types and size of businesses are examined to determine the use or nonuse of humor and the effectiveness thereof in the workplace. Behaviors such as teasing, self-ridiculing joking behavior, bantering and who uses such behaviors are surveyed. The importance and functions of engaging in joking behavior is looked at from the perspective of the employer and employee. The effectiveness of humor is discussed addressing communication between superiors and subordinates, creativity of employees and performance and cohesiveness of the work group. The multiple functions of humor are investigated to include its' negative uses and how it affects the work group. Findings reveal the positive use of humor is an effective means of communication between superiors and subordinates whether enhancing group cohesiveness or conveying a difficult message. Also allowing and encouraging employees to interchange humor with one another produces greater job satisfaction and more productive employees. Managers found the use of humor to be an effective tool in dealing with conflict, approaching problem-solving tasks, and encouraging creativity and efficiency in the workplace.


PO ORG 101

TELEBRAS TRAINING EVALUATION SYSTEM - SAT.

TAMAYO, Alvaro; Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Brasil.

ALVES, Amelia R.; Telebrás, Brasilia, Brasil.

The training Evaluation System - SAT of the Brazilian Telecomunications Holding Company, TELEBRAS is designed in order to provide information regarding the results of training on four levels, namely:

The learning results.

Job performance.

Reaction.

Final results.

The learning results - corresponds to the effect of the program of instruction on instilling the desired skill.

Job performance - means the positive observable change in the employee's performance on the job.

Reaction - refers to the employee's attitude regarding the internal and external training factors.

The instruments for measuring.

The point of departure for building the evaluation measurement scale was the decision that the trainees and the managers themselves were the persons best equipped to provide the content of the qualities to be measured, both at the reaction level and the Training Impact level.

The dimensions were prepared with employees who were in training, and the items were defined based on trainee reaction.

The instruments.

ESAFE (External Factors Evaluation Scale).

ESAFI (Internal Factors Evaluation Scale).

ESAIT - Employee (Training Impact Evaluation Scale).

ESAIT - Manager (Training Impact Evaluation Scale).

Validating the Instruments.

The samples were selected in the Company itself and meets the needs for validity and precision analysis of the measurement instruments.

In general, it has been concluded that the instruments fulfill the psychometric parameters for validity and precision.

Conclusion.

The SAT was prepared from a training operational model at TELEBRAS and due to its results has maintained training in a significant position within the Organization.


PO ORG 102

THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN NEEDS DURING RETROSPECTIVE PEACETIME AND THE PERSIAN GULF WAR: EMPLOYEES IN THE MIDDLE EAST

TANG, Thomas Li-Ping & SAFWAT IBRAHIM, Abdul H.; Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, U.S.A.

Among the content theories of motivation, Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy remains very popular among managers and students of organizational behavior, although there are still very few studies that can legitimately confirm or refute it. The major purpose of the present study was to examine the "importance" of human needs during retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 using a sample of employees in the Middle Bast. Data were collected from police officers, military personnel, university faculty, staff, and clerical workers (N = 378) between January 16 and April 30, 1991. Results of exploratory factor analyses showed that three factors were identified concerning the importance of needs during peacetime and wartime. Factor 1 of peacetime needs importance showed items related to self-esteem, security, self-actualization, food, and water. These results suggested strong Mideastern culture which is different from Western culture. During peacetime, water was the most important need. Safety ratings for one's own life, family, and country were about the same. During the war, basic physiological needs were the most important needs. Safety of one's own life was less important than the safety of one's family and country. These results revealed the importance of Mideastern people's group solidarity and Arab tribal values.


PO ORG 103

THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN NEEDS DURING RETROSPECTIVE PEACETIME AND THE PERSIAN GULF WAR: UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

TANG, Thomas Li-Ping & TANG, Theresa Li-Na; Middle Tenessee State University, Murfreesboro, U.S.A.

Among the content theories of motivation, Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy remains very popular among managers and students of organizational behavior, although there are still very few studies that can legitimately confirm or refute it. The major purpose of the present study was to examine the "importance" of human needs during retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 using a sample of university students in the United States. Data were collected from two regional state universities and a military base in the southeastern United States between January 16 and April 30, 1991. A total of 564 students returned usable data. Results of exploratory factor analyses showed that during peacetime, two factors were identified concerning the importance of needs (higher-order needs, 7 items; and lower-order needs, 6 items), whereas during the war, only one factor was found regarding the importance of needs (13 items). Further, an examination of the mean differences of needs showed that during peacetime, the safety of one's own life was significantly more important than the safety of the country, whereas during wartime, the safety of one's own life and the safety of the country were equally important. All needs were considered more important during the war than during peacetime.


PO ORG 104

TEACHING EVALUATION IN THE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS: FACTORS RELATED TO THE OVERALL TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS

TANG, Thomas Li-Ping; Middle Tenessee State University, Murfreesboro, U.S.A.

Most faculty members and administrators expressed a "great mistrust of student ratings" (Katz, 1973, p. 472). Gomez-Mejia and Balkin (1992) also reported that "teaching ratings by students do not reflect true teaching performance; they are basically a popularity contest" (p. 947). The major purpose of the present study was to identify major factors related to theoverall teaching effectiveness. Data were collected from 6395 students in the College of Business at a regional state university located in the southeastern United States. Students from all business classes were asked to rate their instructors on 12 items regarding teaching performance. Purther, 5 items related students' class status, cumulative GPA, expected grade, reason for taking the course, and classes missed were also included. All these 17 items were used to predict students' rating of overall teaching effectiveness (N = 5636). The results of a multiple regression showed that twelve items were significantly related to the overall rating (R-Square = .6712). The most important predictors were: instructor presents material clearly, instructor answers students' questions effectively, instructor treats students in a courteous and/or professional manner, and instructor appears to be well prepared for each class. It appears that these predictors are important factors related to teaching.


PO ORG 105

EXTENDING FORD & WROTEN'S MATCHING TECHNIQUE WITH TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS AND TRANSFER DATA

TEACHOUT, Mark S. USAF Armstrong Laboratories, USA.

SEGO, D. J. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.

FORD, J. Kevin. Michigan State University, USA.

QUIÑONES, Miguel A. Rice University, USA.

Although the most popular framework for depicting training evaluation has been Kirkpatrick's (1976) four-stage process of reactions, learning, behavior and results, this framework offers no specific mechanism for making changes to training courses. However, training models, such as those described by Goldstein (1991), depict evaluation as a key component that provides feedback to the needs assessment, design, development and delivery stages of training to continuously update and improve the entire training process. Despite these conceptual models, little research has been conducted to develop methodologies for using training evaluation information to make training course changes. One exception is Ford & Wroten's (1984) Matching Technique, that compares, or matches, the importance of a task to job performance to the emphasis placed on tasks in a training program. The purpose of this paper is to extend the matching technique to integrate information about the efficiency, effectiveness and transfer of training for program re-design. The Matching Technique was applied to a mechanic's training course, and follow-up performance effectiveness and opportunity to perform (Ford, Quinones, Sego, & Sorra, 1992) data were collected from 232 graduates and their supervisors 8 months after the completion of training. These data were integrated and used to make specific recommendations for course changes.


PO ORG 106

MEASURING LEADER-MEMBER INTERACTIONS: DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY OF TWO SCALES

TOMÁS-MARCO, Inés. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

1. Objective: The aim of this paper is to study the discriminant validity of the Leader-Member Exchange scale (LMX; Scandura and Graen, 1984) and the Information Exchange scale (IE; Kozlowski and Doherty, 1989), by means of confirmatory factor analysis. These two scales have been used to measure leader-member dyadic interactions and exchanges in the context of the Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) model of leadership (Graen, 1976; Graen and Cashman, 1975). Kozlowski and Doherty's research (1989) asserted that both scales were tapping the same construct (the correlation between the LMX and the IE meaures in their study was .73, p<.001). However, they didn't test if the constructs measured by the two scales were empirically discriminable. A high correlation betwen two different scales doesn't neccesary mean that both are measuring the same construct.

2. Method. Data analvsis and Sample: A sample of 219 employees of different Primary Health Care Temas was used to compare two alternative factor models. The first model hypothesised that the two scales measure the same underlying factor, whereas the second hypothesised that each one measure one distinct underlying factor.

3. Results: The monofactorial model yielded a chi-square (90) = 350.64, P <0.009, and RMSR="0.084." The results for the bifactorial model were a X2(89) = 262.84, P <0.009, and RMSR="0.074." Taking into account these results, it can be stated that the bifactorial model showed a better fit to data than the monofactorial model ( X2dif (1) = 87.8, P <0.005). Moreover, the correlation between the two underlying constructs in the bifactorial model (0.79), was significantly different from 1.

4. Conclusions: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Leader-Member Exchange scale (LMX), and the Information Excange (IE), provided evidence to reject the hypothesis that they tapped the same construct. The results pointed out that in spite of having a high correlation, the two underlying constructs were discriminables. Researchers investigating leader-members interaction should be aware of these results.


PO ORG 107

PROJECT CONCERNING HOSPITAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

TOUS, A. and CLAR, M. Son Dureta Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

An operative management of Human Resources within a public health system sush as the Spanish, should fundamentally attend to two basic aspects: One, the valid social-economical aspect and two, the structural-organisational side, characteristic of the system to which it belongs.

We shall then channel the Human Resource Management in this type of health organitation via staff adaptability as well as the optimisation of results; by attending to two aspects: an internal one, involving the Management, heads of staff, employees and union representatives and an external side, concerned with social structure and its requirements.

This measure would reflect on a medium to long term basis upon the suitability of staff to a particular job, the retention of qualified personnel, the profitability of the resources available, a professional involvement within verifiable objetives and an optimisation of the total job quality of the internal client.


PO ORG 108

A TEST OF BASS'S MODEL OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

URBAEZ, Nancy E. Universidad Autonoma De Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

DAVIS, Donald D. Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA USA.

A Spanish version of the Multifactor Leader Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 1990) was used to test Bass's theory of transformational leadership with 402 employees and managers in the Dominican Republic. The influence of transformational and transactional leadership styles on group and supervisor effectiveness, satisfaction, innovativeness, extra effort, and participative decision making was examined. Moreover, the influence of cultural values as measured with the Values Survey Module (Hofstede, 1982) was also examined. Bivariate correlational analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses provided some support for the generalizabity of Bass's theory. Subordinates of transformational leaders reported greater satisfaction, effectiveness, effort, and innovativeness than did subordinates of transactional or laissez-faire leaders. Subordinates of transactional leaders reported more participation in decision making. Values for competition/ cooperation, individualism/collectivism, family focus, and masculinity/femininity exerted little effect beyond the influence of leadership style. Some psychometric problems with the Spanish version of the Multi factor Leadership Questionnaire and suggestions for future testing of Bass's theory of transformational leadership with Latin American managers are discussed.


PO ORG 110

A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON OF THE INFLUENCE OF SPAN OF CONTROL

VECCHIO, Robert P. University of Notre Dame, USA.

Data on span of control were obtained for 1,244 working adults representing seven nations (Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, and the U.S.A.). From Hofstede's (1980) work on individualism-collectivism, it was hypothesized that the national samples would respond differently, in terms of job satisfaction, to reported span of control such that individuals from collectivist countries would respond more positively to larger spans. Results confirmed a significant interaction between country of respondent and span of control. Also, preference for working in a larger versus smaller firm was associated with the national groupings in accordance with a collectivism-deduced prediction. Contrary to conventional wisdom, curvilinear relationships did not play a role in relating span of control to the criteria. The results are interpreted as underscoring the limits of management theorizing that originates in a single culture.


PO ORG 111

THE INFLUENCE OF THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY OF ORGANIZATION UPON THE TRAITS OF WORK AND WELLBEING OF EMPLOYEES

WARIS, Kyösti. Ministry of Labour, Division of Occupational

Safety and Health, Finland.

The aim of the research was to find out whether workplaces are able to develop their working conditions without outside expertise and if so, on what conditions it might happen. The analysis is still going on. The part objective was to clear up the structural relationships and influence between the functional capacity of organization, traits of work and the mental well-being of employees. -The data was collected by a questionaire in 1989 - 1990. The subjects were employees (n=131) from seven public sector workplaces (regional post, telegraph and labour protection offices).- The functional capacity of the organization was measured by the six items by the author: Cooperation between supervisors and employees, cooperation between employees, labour protection, occupational health care, participation and motivation to develop the working environment. The traits of work were measured by JDS and mental well-beig by EZ-scale. The data was analyzed by Lisrel 8.03W applying the methods of confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. - So far it has been found that especially cooperation between supervisors and employees, labour protection and occupational health care have an impact via traits of work (skill variety, significance and task feedback) on mental well-being (work motivation and work potential) of employees.


PO ORG 112

INNOVATION IN ADVERTISING TEAMS: ON PROBLEM SOLVING, LEADERSHIP AND INNOVATIVE ADS.

WERTHEBACH, Markus; RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

Innovations and conditions for being innovative (granted autonomy, appreciation, collegial problem solving) have been investigated on the interactional level.

Four experiments have been conducted with n=80 graduate students. In each experiment four teams received the task to design four ads for cosmetics, one per period. According to individual instructions each team is composed of one leader, one dreamer, one realist, and one critic. The critic has to (a) give constructive criticism, or (b) intrigue against his colleagues, or (c) deprive the leader of his power, or (d) refuse responsibility for the teamwork. Instructions have been assigned according to the Latin Square.

After each period participants described their colleagues by means of above scales. A jury valued the four ads of one period according to a scale for measuring advertising effect. Teams with appealing (boring) ads gained (lost) market shares.

Results: Quality of problem solving in the team proved to be most important for individual inventiveness. Powerplay of the leader or realist helped to balance the team when the critic played hard.

High individual inventiveness was a good predictor for advertising success. Altogether 'powerplay' was the worst working condition, followed by 'no responsibility', followed by 'intrigue'.


PO ORG 113

DRUGS AT WORK: THE EFFECTS OF BETEL NUT CHEWING ON SELECTED PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES

WYATT, Thomas A. City Politechnic of Hong Kong.

Thirty-one male earth moving operators with an average age of 30 years, volunteered to participate in a laboratory study of the impact of chewing various quantities of betel nut upon visual choice reaction time, digit span, eyehand coordination, pulse rate, and blood pressure. Because of the paucity of published research and the conflicting statements about the nature of the effects of betel nut chewing, most hypotheses were two-tailed tests. Using a one-way analysis of variance repeated measurements design, the results indicated no statistical effect of betel nut upon visual choice reaction time, digit span, eye-hand coordination (as measured by the pursuit rotor task), systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Results did show a statistically significant impact on pulse rate in a positive direction. The discussion focuses on the direct psychophysiological effects of betel nut chewing upon the employee. Given the fact that the results indicate no significant decrement in the work-related dependent variables, a discussion ensues on the possible use of betel nut at the work place and particularly as an antidote fordriver fatigue. Limitations of the study, directions for future research, and implications of the findings are discussed.


PO ORG 116

GENDER IDENTITY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONCEPT OF SELF-IDEAL EMPLOYEE.

YOSHIOKA, Izumi; Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.

Recent recession in Japan has been affecting employment as well as economic conditions. In addition to the difficulties of recent college graduates in finding jobs, the restructuring of companies has resulted in many laid off workers. In contrast to the period of the so-called "bubble economy," it is now a buyers market for the companies. Students soon to enter the employment market are now much more aware of companies' expectation from their employees and of the fact that females are less in demand. The congruence between one's own wishes and those of the employer seems an important area for research.

This study examines the discrepancy between personal and societal values, and psychological effects of the students' self perception and expectations from the companies, considering gender influences to their images.


PO ORG 118

SELF AND WORK; A PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITIQUE TO HEGEL

YUN, Hyun Sub. Kang Weon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

The classical causal hypothesis from the Work to the Self of Hegel has been the logos for the Marxist economy. This paper intends to reverse the direction of causality: The hypothesis is that the Self determines the quality and quantity of the Work. A covariance structure model (Lisrel) is constructed and would be tested. The model has three fundamental theoretical variables such as "I think, I feel, and I want". These three ideas of the Self are primordial, and dereived from Kantian Transcendental Ich. These three constructs of the Self are causally related to the construct of "I am (exist)". This causality is derived from the famous Cartesian propostion, "I think, and therefore I am (Cogito ergo sum)". And from this "I am", the constrsuct of "I work" is causally generated. The hypothesis of this paper is that the Self determines the Existence, and the Existence determines the experience of the Work. 200 labourers would be randomly selected and tested with the scales developed and lisrel analysis would be made.


PO ORG 119

A SURVEY STUDY INTO CULTURAL INSENSITIVITY OF IMPORTED HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMMES WITHIN INDONESIA.

BENTON, Stephen; University of Westminster, Westminster, UK.

PEKERTI, Anugerah; Yayasan Pendidikan dan Pembinaan Manajemen Indonesia,

Jakarta, Indonesia.

A questionnaire-based survey is to be completed into the effectiveness and longevity of imported Human Resource (HR) programmes. This study is in response to the increasing level of dissatisfaction to be found within the Indonesian Business Community (IBC) concerning the apparent short-lived and benefits associated with many HR programmes. This general perception now requires the development of a systematic information base from which areas of HR strengths and weaknesses may be described and appraised. Moreover, the general explanation for the root cause of failure is frequently assigned to the global term 'cultural differences'. The study will seek to operationalise this term on a series of assessment dimensions.

The target population is 500 practising Indonesian Managers and HR professionals based within a cross section of the businesses found within the Jakarta-based IBC. Outcomes will show the perceived cost-benefits of investments into HR programmes and how perceived cultural differences are employed to account for poor performance/returns.


PO ORG 121

LESSONS LEARNED FROM INTERNATIONAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL LEADERSHIP RESEARCH.

DORFMAN, Peter W.; New Mexico State University, New mexico,

Of the thousands of empirical leadership studies (Bass, 1990), relatively few have been concerned with the impact of cultural influences on leadership. However, few doubt the importance of achieving a better understanding of how culture influences leadership effectiveness. Yet, despite this need, there is no theory of cross-cultural leadership that is empirically based (House, Hanges, & Agar, 1993). The central question to address becomes "If the phenomenon of leadership is universal and found in all societies (Bass, 1990; Murdock, 1967), to what extent is leadership culturally contingent?". Will characteristics of a society make it more or less susceptible to leadership influence?. To what extent will prototypes of "ideal leaders" vary across cultures?. Are the leadership functions identical across cultures, and if so, will leadership styles and behaviors vary in accomplishing these functions?. What principles and/or laws of leadership transcend cultures?. We do not have comprehensive answers to these questions, but progress has been made in a number of areas. This paper will focus on the lessons learned from approximately 40 years of cross-cultural leadership research. I will address the ultimate question as to whether culture is the definitive moderator of leadership. Suggestions for future research and a model of cross-cultural leadership will be presented.


PO ORG 122

THE MODERATING EFFECT OF SENSE OF COMPETENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS.

CHEW, Irene K. H.; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

WAH, Chay Yue; National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Extensive studies have found a relationship between stress and the dysfunctional outcomes such as poor performance and labour turnover in an organization (Beehr and Newman, 1978; Bhagat, 1983 and Jamal, 1984).

Bhagat and Allie (1989) postulated that a person's sense of competence may have a moderating effect on a person's response to stress. They argued that a person with a higher sense of competence would experience a weaker relationship between stress and the various indicators of life strain. This study was conducted on managers and supervisors exploring the moderating effect of the sense of competence.

Using managers as subjects, moderating effect (p<.025) was found between negative life stress and depersonalisation. Weak moderating effects (p<.05) was also found between organizational stress and satisfaction with work.