Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousă & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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G. High syntaxa of Spain and Portugal and their characteristic species
1. Syntaxonomical system

III. Coastal and continental halophilous and sand dune vegetation

IIIa. Vegetation of coastal sand dunes

16. Ammophiletea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946

Pioneer perennial rhizomatous grasses and chamaephyte coastal sand dune communities of Mediterranean and Atlantic littoral distribution. Mobile fore-dunes (Ammophiletalia) [external flat coastal dunes (Honckenyo-Elytrigion: Elytrigienion boreoatlanticae = Atlantic, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Tingitanian, Elytrigienion junceae = Mediterranean excepting Tingitanian and Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian), internal high coastal dunes (Ammophilion australis: Ammophilenion australis = Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic until Basque Country coasts), Mediterranean salt flat coastal dunes (Sporobolion arenarii)]; grey hind-dunes (Crucianelletalia maritimae) [Mediterranean drainage basin (Crucianellion maritimae), franco-atlantic coasts (Euphorbio-Helichrysion maritimae), ibero-atlantic coasts (Helichrysion picardii)]. Mediterranean and Atlantic-Central European.
Characteristic species: Anthemis maritima, Cyperus capitatus, Euphorbia paralias, Lotus creticus, Medicago marina, Pancratium maritimum, Polygonum maritimum.

16a. Ammophiletalia Br.-Bl. 1933
Characteristic species: Calystegia soldanella, Eryngium maritimum, Festuca juncifolia, Otanthus maritimus.

16.1. Ammophilion australis Br.-Bl. 1921 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco in Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990
[Ammophilion arundinaceae]
( Ammophilenion australis Rivas-Martínez & Géhu in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 corr. F. Prieto & T. E. Díaz 1991 (16.1a) )
Characteristic species: Ammophila arenaria subsp. australis (16.1a), Echinophora spinosa (16.1a).

16.2. Honckenyo peploidis-Elytrigion boreoatlanticae Tüxen in Br.-Bl. & Tüxen 1952 nom. mut. & inv. propos.
[Agropyro-Minuartion peploidis]
( Elytrigienion boreoatlanticae Rivas-Martínez & Géhu in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 nom. mut. propos. (16.2a). Elytrigienion junceae Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 nom. mut. propos. (16.2b) )
Characteristic species: Elytrigia juncea subsp. boreoatlantica (16.2a), Elytrigia juncea subsp. juncea (16.2b), Honckenya peploides var. peploides (16.2a).

16.3. Sporobolion arenarii (Géhu & Géhu-Franck ex Géhu & Biondi 1994) Rivas-Martínez & Cantó all. nova, stat. nov.
Characteristic species: Centaurea seridis var. maritima, Centaurea sphaerocephala var. polyacantha, Sporobolus arenarius.

16b. Crucianelletalia maritimae Sissingh 1974
Characteristic species: Aetheorhiza bulbosa, Crucianella maritima, Euphorbia portlandica, Helichrysum stoechas var. maritimum, Leontodon taraxacoides subsp. taraxacoides, Malcolmia littorea, Matthiola sinuata, Ononis ramosissima, Scrophularia frutescens.

16.4. Crucianellion maritimae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1958
Characteristic species: Ambrosia maritima, Echium sabulicola, Launaea fragilis subsp. viminea, Teucrium dunense.

16.5. Euphorbio portlandicae-Helichrysion maritimi Géhu & Tüxen ex Sissingh 1974
Characteristic species: Alyssum loiseleurii, Asperula occidentalis, Dianthus hyssopifolius subsp. gallicus, Galium arenarium, Linaria maritima.

16.6. Helichrysion picardii (Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco in Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Armeria pungens, Armeria welwitschii, Artemisia crithmifolia, Coincya pseudoerucastrum subsp. johnstonii, Echium gaditanum, Euphorbia baetica, Helichrysum picardii, Iberis procumbens, Jasione lusitanica, Linaria navarroi, Linaria lamarckii, Thymus carnosus.

17. Cakiletea maritimae Tüxen & Preising ex Br.-Bl. & Tüxen 1952

Pioneer halo-nitrophilous annual forb communities of strandlines, beaches and coastal sand dunes (Cakiletalia integrifoliae) [Atlantic and Baltic See coasts (Atriplicion littoralis), Mediterranean and Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian (Cakilion maritimae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Beta maritima var. maritima, Cakile edentula, Chamaesyce peplis, Glaucium flavum, Salsola kali subsp. kali, Salsola kali var. polysarca.

17a. Cakiletalia integrifoliae Tüxen ex Oberdorfer 1949 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Loidi 1992
[Cakiletalia maritimae]
Characteristic species: See class (17).

17.1. Atriplicion littoralis Nordhagen 1940
Characteristic species: Atriplex glabriuscula, Atriplex laciniata, Cakile maritima subsp. integrifolia, Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Polygonum raii (*), Raphanus maritimus subsp. maritimus.

17.2. Cakilion maritimae Pignatti 1953
Characteristic species: Atriplex rosea subsp. tarraconensis, Cakile maritima subsp. maritima.

18. Honckenyo-Leymetea arenarii Tüxen 1966 nom. mut. propos.

[Honckenyo-Elymetea arenarii]
European class not found in the territory.

IIIb. Coastal and continental halophilous vegetation

19. Crithmo-Limonietea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952 nom. mut. propos.

[Crithmo-Staticetea]
Coastal chasmophytic communities of cliffs and lithosols splashed by marine salt spray under mediterranean bioclimate (Crithmo-Limonietalia) [Western Mediterranean (Crithmo-Limonion), Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian (Crithmo-Daucion halophili), Canarian (Frankenio-Astydamion) and Madeiran (Helichrysion obconico-devium) and dwarf chamaephyte cushion-shaped communities of lithosols or sandy-lithosols of mediterranean coastal rockies splashed by strong marine winds in Balearic Islands (Launaeion cervicornis) or locally in Iberian Peninsula (Sagres) and Catalan-Valencian (Astragalion tragacanthae)]. Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Asteriscus maritimus, Crithmum maritimum, Limonium virgatum, Plantago macrorhiza.

19a. Crithmo-Limonietalia Molinier 1934 nom. mut. propos.
[Crithmo-Staticetalia]
Characteristic species: Helichrysum stoechas subsp. caespitosum.

19.1. Crithmo-Limonion Molinier 1934 nom. mut. propos.
[Crithmo-Staticion]
Characteristic species: Daucus gingidium subsp. commutatus, Daucus gingidium subsp. hispanicus, Euphorbia margalidiana, Frankenia laevis var. marcosii, Limonium artruchium, Limonium balearicum, Limonium caprariense, Limonium carregadorense, Limonium dragonericum, Limonium dufourii, Limonium ebusitanum, Limonium fontqueri, Limonium geronense, Limonium gymnesicum, Limonium majoricum, Limonium malacitanum, Limonium minoricense, Limonium minutum, Limonium muradense, Limonium portopetranum, Limonium pseudebusitanum, Limonium pseudodictyocladum, Limonium revolutum, Limonium saxicola, Limonium tenuicaule, Limonium tremolsii, Lotus cytisoides, Senecio leucanthemifolius subsp. crassifolius, Sonchus tenerrimus var. pectinatus.

19.2. Launaeion cervicornis (O. Bolňs & Vigo ex Gil & Llorens 1995) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Anthyllis hystrix, Dorycnium fulgurans, Euphorbia maresii subsp. maresii, Femeniasia balearica, Launaea cervicornis, Santolina chamaecyparissus subsp. magonica.

19.3. Crithmo-Daucion halophili Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990
Characteristic species: Armeria pseudarmeria, Daucus halophilus, Dianthus cintranus subsp. cintranus, Limonium emarginatum, Limonium multiflorum, Limonium plurisquamatum, Silene obtusifolia, Spergularia australis.

19.4. Frankenio-Astydamion latifoliae Santos 1976
Characteristic species: Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. succulentum, Astydamia latifolia, Atractylis preuxiana, Frankenia ericifolia, Limonium humboldtii, Limonium imbricatum, Limonium papillatum, Limonium pectinatum, Reichardia crystalina, Reichardia ligulata var. crispa.

19.5. Astragalion tragacanthae (Folch ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi all. nova, stat. nov.
Characteristic species: Astragalus tragacantha subsp. tragacantha, Astragalus tragacantha subsp. vicentinus, Festuca ruscinonensis, Plantago subulata, Polycarpon polycarpoides subsp. catalaunicum, Senecio cineraria, Seseli farrenyi, Silene rothmaleri.

19.6. Helichrysion obconico-devium Rivas-Martínez, Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousă, Fontinha, Jardim & Sequeira all. nova
Characteristic species: Helichrysum devium, Helichrysum obconicum, Limonium pyramidatum.

20. Juncetea maritimi Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952

Perennial grasslands growing on coastal and inland temporary wet or inundated salt marshes. Temperate continental and low littoral Cantabrian-Atlantic (Glauco-Puccinellietalia) [coastal dense juncoid wet salt marshes (Glauco maritimae-Juncion maritimi), coastal prostratae chamaephyte halo-nitrophilous communities reached by highest tides (Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis)]; Mediterranean (Juncetalia maritimi) [coastal or inland Juncus maritimus and graminoid wet communities (Juncion maritimi: Juncenion maritimi = coastal euoceanic, Soncho crassifolii-Juncenion maritimi = inland semicontinental), coastal halophilous well drained sandy soils (Plantaginion crassifoliae), inland long stagnant brackish water (Puccinellion caespitosae)]; aerohaline Atlantic sea cliffs (Crithmo-Armerietalia) [Britanic, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and West Tingitanian (Crithmo-Armerion), Azorean (Euphorbio azoricae-Festucion petraeae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Alopecurus bulbosus, Apium graveolens, Aster tripolium, Carex extensa, Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa, Glaux maritima, Juncus gerardi, Juncus maritimus, Limonium auriculae-ursifolium, Plantago maritima, Puccinellia rupestris, Triglochin maritima.

20a. Juncetalia maritimi Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934
Characteristic species: Dorycnium gracile, Elytrigia elongata, Juncus acutus, Lotus preslii, Melilotus siculus, Puccinellia festuciformis subsp. lagascana, Puccinellia tenuifolia, Sonchus maritimus, Spartina versicolor, Thalictrum maritimum.

20.1. Juncion maritimi Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934
(Juncenion maritimi Rivas-Martínez 1984 (20.1a). Soncho crassifolii-Juncenion maritimi Rivas-Martínez 1984 (20.1b))
Characteristic species: Centaurium tenuiflorum, Elytrigia curvifolia (20.1b), Gypsophila tomentosa (20.1b), Helianthemum polygonoides (20.1b), Iris spuria subsp. maritima, Juncus subulatus, Sonchus crassifolius (20.1b), Tetragonolobus maritimus var. maritimus.

20.2. Plantaginion crassifoliae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952
Characteristic species: Centaurea dracunculifolia, Linum maritimum, Plantago crassifolia.

20.3. Puccinellion caespitosae Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1976 corr. hoc loco
[Puccinellion fasciculatae]
Characteristic species: Carex punctata subsp. lainzii, Puccinellia caespitosa, Puccinellia hispanica, Puccinellia pungens, Scorzonera parviflora.

20b. Glauco-Puccinellietalia Beeftink & Westhoff in Beeftink 1962

Characteristic species: Armeria maritima subsp. maritima, Limonium binervosum, Limonium vulgare, Puccinellia distans, Puccinellia fasciculata, Puccinellia maritima.

20.4. Glauco maritimae-Juncion maritimi Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1984
Characteristic species: Carex punctata subsp. punctata, Cochlearia aestuaria, Festuca rubra subsp. litoralis, Limonium humile.

20.5. Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis Arbesú, Bueno & F. Prieto all. nova
Characteristic species: Frankenia laevis var. laevis, Limonium dodartii, Limonium ovalifolium.

20c. Crithmo-Armerietalia Géhu 1964
Characteristic species: Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. iberica, Dactylis marina.

20.6. Crithmo-Armerion maritimae Géhu 1968
Characteristic species: Angelica pachycarpa, Armeria berlengensis, Armeria euscadiensis, Armeria maritima subsp. miscella, Armeria pubigera subsp. depilata, Armeria pubigera subsp. pubigera, Centaurea borjae, Daucus gingidium subsp. atlanticum, Leucanthemum ircutianum subsp. crassifolium, Leucanthemum merinoi, Leucanthemum pluriflorum, Rumex acetosa subsp. biformis, Rumex rupestris, Sesamoides suffruticosa subsp. latifolia, Silene uniflora, Spergularia rupicola subsp. rupicola, Trifolium occidentale.

20.7. Euphorbio azoricae-Festucion petraeae Lüpnitz 1976
Characteristic species: Azorina vidali, Daucus azoricus, Euphorbia azorica, Festuca petraea, Spergularia azorica.

21. Puccinellio-Salicornietea Topa 1939

European class not found in the territory.

22. Saginetea maritimae Westhoff, Van Leeuwen & Adriani 1962

Pioneer ephemeral coastal and inland communities on bare or disturbed salt-marsh. Littoral Atlantic temperate, saline, and loamy or sandy soils under salt-spray influence (Saginetalia maritimae: Saginion maritimae); Mediterranean littoral or inland halophilous habitats (Frankenietalia pulverulentae) [coastal and inland long stagnant saline waters (Frankenion pulverulentae), inland slightly inundated saline waters (Hordeion marini)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Bupleurum tenuissimum, Catapodium marinum, Centaurium spicatum, Parapholis incurva, Parapholis strigosa, Plantago coronopus var. stricta, Rhynchostegiella littorea, Sagina maritima, Spergularia bocconei, Spergularia marina.

22a. Saginetalia maritimae Westhoff, Van Leeuwen & Adriani 1962
Characteristic species: See alliance (22.1).

22.1. Saginion maritimae Westhoff, Van Leeuwen & Adriani 1962
Characteristic species: Amblystegium serpens var. salinum, Cochlearia danica, Sagina nodosa.

22b. Frankenietalia pulverulentae Rivas-Martínez ex Castroviejo & Porta 1976
Characteristic species: Frankenia pulverulenta, Parapholis filiformis, Parapholis pycnantha, Spergularia diandra.

22.2. Frankenion pulverulentae Rivas-Martínez ex Castroviejo & Porta 1976
Characteristic species: Arenaria viridis, Catapodium rigidum subsp. spicatum, Filago mareotica, Hymenolobus pauciflorus, Hymenolobus procumbens, Silene sedoides, Sphenopus divaricatus, Teucrium campanulatum.

22.3. Hordeion marini Ladero, F. Navarro, C. Valle, B. Marcos, Ruiz & M.T. Santos 1984
Characteristic species: Agrostis nebulosa, Gaudinia hispanica, Hainardia cylindrica, Hainardiopholis xpauneroi, Hordeum marinum, Parapholis pannonica, Polypogon maritimus subsp. maritimus, Polypogon maritimus subsp. subspathaceus, Rostraria phleoides, Rostraria pumila.

23. Sarcocornietea fruticosae Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex A. & O. Bolňs 1950 nom. mut. propos.

[Salicornietea fruticosae]
Coastal and inland Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic perennial salt-marshes and salt-pans communities. Temporarily inundated succulent chenopodiaceous dwarf shrubs (Sarcocornietalia fruticosae) [coastal Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic to South England salt-marshes reached by tides or in saltworks (Sarcocornion fruticosae: Sarcocornienion fruticosae = Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic to South Britanny saltworks and wet salt-marshes occasionally reached by tides, Sarcocornienion perennis = Cantabrian-Atlantic to South England tidelands), coastal Mediterranean to South Galicia and related inland salt pans short time inundated (Arthrocnemion macrostachyi: Arthrocnemenion macrostachyi = Mediterranean and Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian to Lisbonne in high elevations of salt-marshes ever out of tides and related inland salt pans, Sarcocornienion alpini = Mediterranean, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Cantabrian-Atlantic to South Galicia salt-marshes only exceptionally reached by tides), inland salt-pans winter inundated (Suaedion braun-blanquetii), coastal halo-nitrophilous slightly inundated (Suaedion verae)]; littoral and inland temporary wet Mediterranean high saline Limonium and perennial grasses (Limonietalia) [coastal Western Mediterranean dry and subhumid short time inundated Limonium communities (Limonion confusi), coastal thermomediterranean well drained sandy Limoniastrum monopetalum communities (Limoniastrion monopetali), inland mesomediterranean semiarid and dry Lygeum-Limonium communities of Ebro river drainage basin (Limonion catalaunico-viciosoi), inland mesomediterranean dry Lygeum-Limonium communities of Castilian biogeographic Subprovince (Lygeo-Lepidion cardamines), coastal and inland Murcian-Almeriensian thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid Lygeum-Limonium communities (Lygeo-Limonion angustebracteati)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Artemisia gallica subsp. gallica, Inula crithmoides.

23a. Sarcocornietalia fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933 nom. mut. propos.
[Salicornietalia fruticosae]
Characteristic species: Halimione portulacoides, Puccinellia festuciformis subsp. festuciformis, Triglochin barrelieri.

23.1. Sarcocornion fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933 nom. mut. propos.
[Salicornion fruticosae]
(Sarcocornienion fruticosae Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984 nom. mut. propos. (23.1a). Sarcocornienion perennis Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984 nom. mut. propos. (23.1b))
Characteristic species: Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis (23.1b).

23.2. Arthrocnemion macrostachyi Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984 nom. mut. propos.
[Arthrocnemion glauci]
(Arthrocnemenion macrostachyi Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990 nom. mut. propos. (23.2a). Sarcocornienion alpini Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990 (23.2b))
Characteristic species: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Frankenia corymbosa, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Limonium algarvense, Limonium daveaui, Limonium ferulaceum, Sarcocornia alpini (23.2b).

23.3. Suaedion braun-blanquetii Br.-Bl. & O. Bolňs 1958 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
[Suaedion brevifoliae]
Characteristic species: Suaeda braun-blanquetii.

23.4. Suaedion verae (Rivas-Martínez, Lousă, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
[Suaedenion verae]
Characteristic species: Suaeda vera.

23b. Limonietalia Br.-Bl. & O. Bolňs 1958
Characteristic species: Limonium bellidifolium, Limonium cossonianum, Limonium densissimum, Limonium latebracteatum, Limonium narbonense, Limonium supinum.

23.5. Limonion confusi (Br.-Bl. 1933) Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984
Characteristic species: Limonium antonii-llorensii, Limonium biflorum, Limonium boirae, Limonium cavanillesii, Limonium companyonis, Limonium confusum, Limonium diffusum, Limonium gibertii, Limonium girardianum, Limonium grosii, Limonium heterospicatum, Limonium legrandii, Limonium magallufianum, Limonium marisolii, Limonium migjornense, Limonium pseudarticulatum, Limonium retusum, Limonium scorpioides, Limonium wiedmannii.

23.6. Limoniastrion monopetali Pignatti 1953
Characteristic species: Limoniastrum monopetalum.

23.7. Limonion catalaunico-viciosoi Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984
Characteristic species: Artemisia gallica subsp. gargantae, Limonium aragonense, Limonium catalaunicum, Limonium costae, Limonium hibericum, Limonium ruizii, Limonium stenophyllum, Limonium viciosoi, Senecio auricula subsp. sicoricus.

23.8. Lygeo-Lepidion cardamines Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984
Characteristic species: Limonium carpetanicum, Limonium cofrentanum, Limonium dichotomum, Limonium erectum, Limonium lobetanicum, Limonium majus, Limonium minus, Limonium pinillense, Limonium quesadense, Limonium soboliferum, Limonium squarrosum, Limonium sucronicum, Limonium toletanum, Limonium tournefortii, Senecio auricula subsp. castellanus.

23.9. Lygeo-Limonion angustebracteati Rigual ex Alcaraz, P. Sánchez & De la Torre 1989
Characteristic species: Limonium angustebracteatum, Limonium caesium, Limonium cordovillense, Limonium delicatulum, Limonium furfuraceum, Limonium insigne, Limonium santapolense, Senecio auricula subsp. auricula.

24. Spartinetea maritimae Tüxen in Beeftink & Géhu 1973

Pioneer coastal Spartina perennial grass communities on intertidal mud and sand (Spartinetalia maritimae: Spartinion maritimae). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina xtownsendii.

24a. Spartinetalia maritimae Conard ex Beeftink & Géhu 1973
Characteristic species: See alliance (24.1).

24.1. Spartinion maritimae Conard ex Beeftink & Géhu 1973
Characteristic species: Spartina maritima.

25. Thero-Salicornietea Tüxen in Tüxen & Oberdorfer ex Géhu & Géhu-Frank 1984 nom. conserv. propos.

[Thero-Suaedetea Rivas-Martínez 1972 (art. 52)]
Pioneer annual coastal and continental tidal mud-flat and temporary inundated salt marshes and salt-pans communities of glassworts and other therophyte succulent plants. Littoral and inland halophytic (Thero-Salicornietalia) [tidal muddy flats mostly Cantabrian-Atlantic tetraploids (Salicornion dolichostachyo-fragilis), upper muddy flats and salt marsh coastal and continental Atlantic-Central European diploids (Salicornion europaeo-ramosissimae), Mediterranean coastal and inland long inundated diploids and tetraploids (Salicornion patulae), Mediterranean continental temporary wet (Microcnemion coralloidis)]; littoral and inland halo-nitrophilous (Thero-Suaedetalia: Thero-Suaedion). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Salicornia europaea, Suaeda macrocarpa, Suaeda maritima.

25a. Thero-Suaedetalia Br.-Bl. & O. Bolňs 1958
[Thero-Salicornietalia Pignatti 1953 (art. 36) nom. ambig. propos.]
Characteristic species: See alliance (25.1).

25.1. Thero-Suaedion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952
[Thero-Salicornion Br.-Bl. 1933 (art. 36) nom. ambig. propos.]
Characteristic species: Salsola soda, Suaeda albescens, Suaeda spicata, Suaeda splendens.

25b. Thero-Salicornietalia Tüxen in Tüxen & Oberdorfer ex Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1984
Characteristic species: Salicornia emerici, Salicornia obscura.

25.2. Salicornion dolichostachyo-fragilis Géhu & Rivas-Martínez ex Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1984
Characteristic species: Salicornia dolichostachya, Salicornia lutescens.

25.3. Salicornion europaeo-ramosissimae Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1984
Characteristic species: Salicornia pusilla, Salicornia ramosissima.

25.4. Salicornion patulae Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1984
Characteristic species: Salicornia patula.

25.5. Microcnemion coralloidis Rivas-Martínez 1984
Characteristic species: Halopeplis amplexicaulis, Microcnemum coralloides.

IV. Chasmophyte, epiphyte and scree vegetation

IVa. Rock crevice Chasmophyte vegetation

26. Adiantetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952

Chasmophyte fern, seed plant and plentiful bryophyte communities, growing in water-flushed or water splashed rock crevices rich in calcium carbonate in thermo, meso-supramediterranean or temperate submediterranean bioclimatic zones (Adiantetalia capilli-veneris) [bryo-pteridophyte calcareous tufa and rock crevices with water flow (Adiantion capilli-veneris), water over-flowed soaked clayey overhanged calcareous rocks rich in Pinguicula (Pinguiculion longifoliae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: See order (26a).

26a. Adiantetalia capilli-veneris Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934
Characteristic species: Adiantum capillus-veneris, Didymodon tophaceus, Eucladium verticillatum, Gymnostomum calcareum, Hypericum coadunatum, Hypericum nummularium, Pellia fabbroniana, Southbya tophacea.

26.1. Adiantion capilli-veneris Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934
Characteristic species: Geranium cataractarum, Homalia lusitanica, Hymenostylium recurvirostrum, Pteris vittata, Sutera canariensis, Thamnobryum alopecurum var. gracillimum.

26.2. Pinguiculion longifoliae F. Casas 1970
Characteristic species: Pinguicula dertosensis, Pinguicula grandiflora subsp. orocantabrica, Pinguicula longifolia, Pinguicula mundi, Pinguicula vallisneriifolia.

27. Asplenietea trichomanis (Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934) Oberdorfer 1977

Rock crevice chasmophyte communities. Mountain limestone rocks (Potentilletalia caulescentis) [Pyrenean (Saxifragion mediae), meso-supramediterranean Valencian-Tarraconensian (Jasionion foliosae), Orocantabric and Cantabrian-Basque (Saxifragion trifurcato-canaliculatae: Saxifragenion trifurcato-canaliculatae = upper supratemperate to cryorotemperate Orocantabric spread to Bierzo District, Drabo dedeanae-Saxifragenion trifurcatae = meso-supratemperate Cantabrian-Basque to Asturias), Oroiberian (Asplenio-Saxifragion cuneatae), supra-oromediterranean Betic (Saxifragion camposii)]; siliceous rocks (Androsacetalia vandellii) [oro-cryorotemperate Alpine and Pyrenean (Androsacion vandellii), meso-supratemperate and submediterranean (Antirrhinion asarinae), meso-supramediterranean Mediterranean West Iberian (Cheilanthion hispanicae), supra-oro-cryorotemperate and submediterranean Mediterranean West Iberian, Oroiberian and Orocantabric (Saxifragion willkommianae), Nevadensian (Saxifragion nevadensis)]; thermic limestone and calcium rich rocks (Asplenietalia petrarchae) [thermo-mesomediterranean dry and subhumid Western Mediterranean (Asplenion petrarchae), thermo-mesomediterranean dry to humid Saetabic and Valencian-Castellonian (Teucrion buxifolii), Balearic (Brassico balearicae-Helichrysion rupestris), thermo-mesomediterranean dry to humid Betic (Campanulion mollis), thermo-mesomediterranean arid-semiarid Murcian-Almeriensian (Cosentinio-Lafuenteion rotundifoliae)]; long snowed and shaded rock crevices (Violo biflorae-Cystopteridetalia alpinae: Violo-Cystopteridion alpinae); siliceous metal-rich and serpentine rocks (Cheilanthetalia maranto-maderensis) [Canary Islands (Cheilanthion pulchellae), Iberian Peninsula and Catalan-Valencian (Phagnalo-Cheilanthion maderensis)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Artemisia chamaemelifolia subsp. chamaemelifolia, Cystopteris fragilis subsp. fragilis, Hieracium amplexicaule, Hieracium cordifolium, Phagnalon sordidum, Sanguisorba rupicola, Valeriana tripteris.

27a. Potentilletalia caulescentis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Alchemilla amphisericea, Androsace helvetica, Arabis scabra, Asperula hirta, Asplenium ruta-muraria, Asplenium viride, Centranthus angustifolius subsp. lecoqii, Chaenorhinum origanifolium subsp. origanifolium, Cystopteris fragilis subsp. huteri, Erinus alpinus, Galium pusillum subsp. brockmannii, Globularia repens, Hieracium candidum, Hieracium eliseanum, Hieracium humile, Hieracium laniferum, Hieracium lawsonii, Hieracium mixtum, Kernera saxatilis, Lonicera pyrenaica, Phyteuma charmelii, Potentilla alchimilloides, Potentilla caulescens subsp. caulescens, Potentilla nivalis subsp. nivalis, Rhamnus pumilus, Saxifraga longifolia var. longifolia, Saxifraga paniculata, Sedum dasyphyllum subsp. dasyphyllum, Silene saxifraga, Valeriana apula.

27.1. Saxifragion mediae Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934
Characteristic species: Borderea chouardii, Buglossoides gastonii, Campanula cochlearifolia subsp. jaubertiana, Campanula macrorhiza subsp. catalanica, Campanula speciosa, Hieracium bowlesianum, Hieracium cordatum, Hieracium eriopogum, Hieracium glaucocerinthe, Hieracium mixtiforme, Hieracium phlomoides, Hormathophylla pyrenaica (*), Salix tarraconensis, Saxifraga aretioides subsp. aretioides, Saxifraga catalaunica, Saxifraga hariotii, Saxifraga media, Saxifraga xluteopurpurea, Silene borderei, Thalictrum macrocarpum, Thymelaea dioica.

27.2. Jasionion foliosae O. Bolňs 1957
Characteristic species: Campanula macrorhiza subsp. aitanica, Centaurea mariolensis, Hieracium mariolense, Jasione foliosa subsp. foliosa, Saxifraga longifolia var. aitanica.

27.3. Saxifragion trifurcato-canaliculatae Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa 1971
(Saxifragenion trifurcato-canaliculatae F. Prieto 1983 (27.3a). Drabo dedeanae-Saxifragenion trifurcatae F. Prieto ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 (27.3b))
Characteristic species: Alchemilla atriuscula (27.3b), Alchemilla macrochira (27.3b), Alchemilla nieto-felineri (27.3a), Alchemilla spathulata (27.3b), Anemone pavoniana, Antirrhinum braun-blanquetii, Antirrhinum meonanthum subsp. salcedoi, Campanula arvatica subsp. adsurgens, Campanula arvatica subsp. arvatica, Campanula rotundifolia subsp. legionensis, Crepis albida subsp. asturica, Draba dedeana subsp. dedeana, Leontodon farinosus, Potentilla nivalis subsp. asturica (27.3a), Pritzelago alpina subsp. auerswaldii, Saxifraga aretioides subs. felineri (27.3a), Saxifraga babiana (27.3a), Saxifraga canaliculata (27.3a), Saxifraga trifurcata, Saxifraga xfaucicola, Saxifraga xfontqueri, Saxifraga xliebanensis (27.3a), Saxifraga xmontserratii (27.3a), Saxifraga xsomedana (27.3a).

27.4. Asplenio celtiberici-Saxifragion cuneatae Rivas-Martínez in Loidi & F. Prieto 1986
Characteristic species: Campanula hispanica, Campanula macrorhiza subsp. macrorhiza, Draba diazii, Saxifraga cuneata, Saxifraga losae, Saxifraga moncayensis, Saxifraga xalejandrei, Silene boryi subsp. barduliensis.

27.5. Saxifragion camposii Cuatrecasas ex Quézel 1953
Characteristic species: Alyssum cadevallianum, Alyssum reverchonii, Centaurea mariana, Galium erythrorrhizon, Hieracium texedense, Hormathophylla baetica, Hormathophylla cadevalliana, Hormathophylla reverchonii, Jasione foliosa subsp. minuta, Linaria verticillata, Potentilla caulescens subsp. petrophila, Pseudoscabiosa grosii, Saxifraga almeriensis, Saxifraga camposii, Saxifraga rigoi, Sideritis stachyoides.

27b. Androsacetalia vandellii Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934 corr. hoc loco
[Androsacetalia multiflorae]
Characteristic species: Alchemilla saxatilis, Androsace vandellii, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium billotii, Asplenium septentrionale, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. trichomanes, Asplenium xalternifolium nothosubsp. alternifolium, Cheilanthes tinaei, Cystopteris dickieana, Cystopteris xmontserratii, Hieracium graniticum, Hieracium schmidtii, Poa nemoralis subsp. glauca.

27.6. Androsacion vandellii Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926 corr. hoc loco
[Androsacion multiflorae]
Characteristic species: Alchemilla tenerrima, Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. gabriellae, Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. umbelliformis, Cardamine resedifolia, Draba dubia subsp. laevipes, Draba tomentosa subsp. ciliigera, Draba tomentosa subsp. subnivalis, Primula hirsuta, Primula latifolia, Saxifraga intricata, Saxifraga pentadactylis subsp. pentadactylis, Saxifraga pubescens, Saxifraga xverguinii, Woodsia alpina.

27.7. Antirrhinion asarinae (Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934) Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952
Characteristic species: Achillea chamaemelifolia, Antirrhinum asarina, Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. attenuatus, Leucanthemum monspeliense, Minuartia recurva var. thevenaei, Saxifraga genesiana, Saxifraga vayredana.

27.8. Cheilanthion hispanicae Rivas Goday 1956
Characteristic species: Bufonia macropetala subsp. willkommiana, Cheilanthes hispanica, Cheilanthes xiberica, Jasione mariana, Narcissus auricolor.

27.9. Saxifragion willkommianae Rivas-Martínez 1964
Characteristic species: Alchemilla crenulata, Alchemilla serratisaxatilis, Antirrhinum grosii, Centaurea avilae, Hieracium carpetanum, Murbeckiella boryi subsp. boryi, Murbeckiella boryi subsp. herminii, Saxifraga orogredensis, Saxifraga pentadactylis subsp. willkommiana, Saxifraga xceltiberica, Saxifraga xdavidis-webbii, Saxifraga xrivasmartinezii, Silene acutifolia, Silene boryi subsp. penyalarensis.

27.10. Saxifragion nevadensis Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1971
Characteristic species: Centranthus nevadensis subsp. nevadensis, Draba dubia subsp. nevadensis, Erodium rupicola, Poa minor subsp. nevadensis, Saxifraga nevadensis, Sempervivum minutum.

27c. Asplenietalia petrarchae Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934 nom. mut. propos.
[Asplenietalia glandulosi]
Characteristic species: Asplenium petrarchae, Asplenium sagittatum, Chaenorhinum origanifolium subsp. crassifolium, Cheilanthes acrostica, Chiliadenus saxatilis, Cosentinia vellea subsp. vellea, Helichrysum rupestre, Hieracium aragonense, Hieracium loscosianum, Melica minuta, Phagnalon rupestre, Sanguisorba ancistroides subsp. ancistroides, Sedum dasyphyllum subsp. glanduliferum.

27.11. Asplenion petrarchae Br.-Bl. in Meier & Br.-Bl. 1934 nom. mut. propos.
[Asplenion glandulosi]
Characteristic species: Campanula affinis, Campanula macrorhiza subsp. gypsicola, Chaenorhinum origanifolium subsp. cadevallii, Jasione foliosa subsp. mansanetiana, Micromeria fruticosa, Narcissus calcicola, Satureja fruticosa.

27.12. Teucrion buxifolii Rivas Goday 1956
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum valentinum, Asperula paui subsp. dianensis, Centaurea rouyi var. macrocephala, Centaurea rouyi var. suffrutescens, Centaurea spachii var. humilis, Hippocrepis valentina, Linaria cavanillesii, Pseudoscabiosa saxatilis, Rhamnus borgiae, Sanguisorba ancistroides subsp. parviflora, Scabiosa saxatilis, Silene hifacensis, Sonchus tenerrimus var. dianae, Teucrium buxifolium subsp. buxifolium, Teucrium buxifolium subsp. thymifolium, Teucrium hifacense, Teucrium rivasii, Teucrium rivasmartinezii, Teucrium thymifolium, Teucrium xnavarroi, Teucrium xpseudothymifolium, Trisetum cavanillesianum.

27.13. Brassico balearicae-Helichrysion rupestris O. Bolňs & Molinier 1958
Characteristic species: Allium grossii, Asperula paui subsp. paui, Asplenium azomanes, Asplenium xtubalense, Avenula crassifolia, Brassica balearica, Bupleurum barceloi, Cephalaria balearica var. balearica, Cephalaria balearica var. ebusitana, Crepis triasii, Dianthus rupicola subsp. bocchoriana, Digitalis purpurea subsp. dubia, Galium crespianum, Globularia cambessedesii, Helichrysum ambiguum, Hippocrepis balearica, Hippocrepis grosii, Micromeria filiformis, Rhamnus bourgaeanus, Rubia balearica, Scabiosa cretica, Sesleria insularis, Silene mollissima, Thymus richardii var. ebusitanus, Thymus richardii var. richardii.

27.14. Campanulion mollis Martínez-Parras & Peinado 1990 nom. mut. propos.
[Campanulion velutinae]
Characteristic species: Athamanta vayredana, Biscutella frutescens, Campanula mollis, Iberis gibraltarica, Lepidium ramburei, Linaria anticaria, Linaria lilacina, Papaver rupifragum, Saxifraga biternata, Saxifraga bourgeana, Saxifraga globulifera subsp. granatensis, Saxifraga reuteriana, Silene andryalifolia, Silene gazulensis, Silene tomentosa, Teucrium rotundifolium.

27.15. Cosentinio bivalentis-Lafuenteion rotundifoliae Asensi, Molero, Pérez-Raya, Rivas-Martínez & F. Valle 1990
Characteristic species: Centaurea saxicola, Cosentinia vellea subsp. bivalens, Galium ephedroides, Lafuentea rotundifolia, Sideritis glauca, Teucrium fragile, Teucrium freynii, Teucrium intricatum.

27d. Violo biflorae-Cystopteridetalia alpinae F. Casas 1970
Characteristic species: See alliance (27.16).

27.16. Violo biflorae-Cystopteridion alpinae F. Casas 1970
Characteristic species: Agrostis schleicheri, Arabis alpina var. cantabrica, Carex brachystachys, Cystopteris alpina, Cystopteris pseudoregia, Heliosperma quadridentatum, Saxifraga aspera, Saxifraga cotyledon, Saxifraga hirsuta subsp. paucicrenata, Saxifraga retusa, Viola biflora, Woodsia pulchella.

27e. Cheilanthetalia maranto-maderensis Sáenz & Rivas-Martínez 1979
Characteristic species: Cheilanthes guanchica, Cheilanthes maderensis, Cheilanthes xtolocensis, Notholaena marantae subsp. marantae.

27.17. Cheilanthion pulchellae Sáenz & Rivas-Martínez 1979
Characteristic species: Adiantum reniforme subsp. pusillum, Asplenium aethiopicum, Asplenium monanthes, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. maderense, Cheilanthes pulchella, Notholaena marantae subsp. cupripaleacea, Notholaena marantae subsp. subcordata.

27.18. Phagnalo saxatilis-Cheilanthion maderensis Loisel 1970 corr. F.J. Pérez, T.E. Díaz, P. Fernández & Salvo 1989
[Phagnalo-Cheilanthion fragrantis]
Characteristic species: Asplenium foreziense, Asplenium obovatum, Asplenium xkrameri, Asplenium xsleepiae, Cheilanthes xkochiana, Pellaea calomelanos.

28. Parietarietea Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday 1964

Urban and rural anthropogenic wall and rock crevices chasmophyte nitrophilous communities (Parietarietalia) [urban walls and animal refuges at the bottom of rock faces (Parietario-Galion muralis), humid and shaded old walls (Cymbalario-Asplenion), Mediterranean and Atlantic saxicolous aerohalitic marine forbs (Brassicion oleraceae), marine fern chasmophyte supralittoral rock communities under active salt-spray (Asplenion marini), chasmophyte ornithocoprophilous chamaephytic and nanophanerophytic coastal and continental dry and semiarid thermic Western Mediterranean (Lavaterion maritimae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: See order (28a).

28a. Parietarietalia Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday 1964
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum majus subsp. litigiosum, Antirrhinum majus subsp. majus, Cheiranthus cheiri, Chelidonium majus, Cymbalaria muralis, Cyrtomium falcatum, Erigeron karwinskianus, Ficus carica, Hyosciamus albus, Matthiola incana, Parietaria judaica, Sonchus tenerrimus var. tenerrimus, Umbilicus gaditanus, Umbilicus rupestris.

28.1. Parietario-Galion muralis Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday 1964
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum australe, Antirrhinum graniticum subsp. boissieri, Antirrhinum graniticum subsp. onubensis, Antirrhinum meonanthum subsp. meonanthum, Antirrhinum siculum, Capparis spinosa subsp. rupestris, Centranthus ruber, Chaenorhinum villosum subsp. granatensis, Chaenorhinum villosum subsp. villosum, Hypericum hircinum subsp. majus, Hypericum xinodorum, Tolpis succulenta.

28.2. Cymbalario-Asplenion Segal 1969
Characteristic species: Asplenium azoricum, Asplenium ceterach, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, Asplenium xalternifolium nothosubsp. heufleri, Asplenium xbadense, Asplenium xmurbeckii, Asplenium xpreissmannii, Ceterach lolegnamense, Trachelium caeruleum.

28.3. Brassicion oleraceae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Brassica oleracea subsp. oleracea, Brassica oleracea subsp. robertiana, Calendula algarviensis, Calendula incana, Raphanus maritimus subsp. maritimus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Reseda alba subsp. hookeri.

28.4. Asplenion marini Rivas-Martínez & Izco all. nova
Characteristic species: Asplenium marinum.

28.5. Lavaterion maritimae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó all. nova
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum charidemi, Erodium foetidum subsp. crispum, Erodium gaussenianum, Lavatera maritima, Piptatherum coerulescens, Rosmarinus tomentosus, Sideritis hirsuta subsp. maritima.

29. Petrocoptido pyrenaicae-Sarcocapnetea enneaphyllae Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Izco classis nova

Overhanging rock crevice chasmophyte ombrophobic communities growing on limestone or dolomite rich rocks in mountains and canyons of the Iberian Peninsula and North African Maghrebian. Temperate and submediterranean North Spain mountains (Petrocoptidetalia) [Pyrenean (Valeriano longiflorae-Petrocoptidion), Orocantabric (Petrocoptidion glaucifoliae)]; Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula (Sarcocapnetalia enneaphyllae) [Central-East (Sarcocapnion enneaphyllae), Betic Ranges (Sarcocapnion pulcherrimae)]. Western Mediterranean, Orocantabric and Pyrenean: Spain, Morocco and Algeria.
Characteristic species: Asplenium csikii, Sarcocapnos enneaphylla.

29a. Sarcocapnetalia enneaphyllae F. Casas 1972
Characteristic species: Asplenium celtibericum subsp. celtibericum, Centaurea clementei.

29.1. Sarcocapnion enneaphyllae F. Casas 1972
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum microphyllum, Antirrhinum pertegasii, Antirrhinum pulverulentum, Chaenorhinum segoviense subsp. segoviense, Chaenorhinum segoviense subsp. semiglabrum, Moehringia castellana, Valeriana longiflora subsp. paui.

29.2. Sarcocapnion pulcherrimae F. Casas 1972 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Izco 2002
[Sarcocapnion crassifoliae]
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum mollissimum, Antirrhinum subbaeticum, Chaenorhinum tenellum, Gypsophila montserratii, Moehringia intricata subsp. intricata, Moehringia intricata subsp. giennensis, Moehringia tejedensis, Rupicapnos decipiens, Sarcocapnos baetica, Sarcocapnos crassifolia subsp. speciosa, Sarcocapnos integrifolia, Sarcocapnos pulcherrima, Sarcocapnos saetabensis.

29b. Petrocoptidetalia pyrenaicae Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Izco ordo novus
Characteristic species: Asplenium celtibericum subsp. molinae.

29.3Valeriano longiflorae-Petrocoptidion F. Casas 1972
Characteristic species: Androsace cylindrica subsp. cylindrica, Androsace cylindrica subsp. willkommii, Androsace pyrenaica, Antirrhinum molle, Antirrhinum sempervirens, Asplenium seelosi subsp. catalaunicum, Petrocoptis crassifolia, Petrocoptis pardoi subsp. guarensis, Petrocoptis pyrenaica subsp. hispanica, Petrocoptis montserratii, Petrocoptis pardoi subsp. montsicciana, Petrocoptis pardoi subsp. pardoi, Petrocoptis pseudoviscosa, Petrocoptis pyrenaica subsp. pyrenaica, Scrophularia pyrenaica, Valeriana longiflora subsp. longiflora.

29.4. Petrocoptidion glaucifoliae (P. Fernández, Penas & T.E. Díaz 1983) Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Izco all. nova, stat. nov.
Characteristic species: Petrocoptis grandiflora, Petrocoptis pyrenaica subsp. glaucifolia, Petrocoptis pyrenaica subsp. viscosa, Petrocoptis pyrenaica subsp. wiedmannii.

IVb. Chasmocomophyte, epiphyte and scree vegetation

30. Anomodonto-Polypodietea Rivas-Martínez 1975

Epiphytic and comophytic shaded communities dominated by short rhizomatous ferns (Polypodium, Davallia, Hymenophyllum, etc.), bryophytes and some seed plants, growing on rainy temperate and mediterranean oceanic and hyperoceanic territories (Anomodonto-Polypodietalia) [epiphytic Polypodium cambricum (Polypodion cambrici: Polypodienion cambrici = nutrient-rich substrata, Bartramio-Polypodienion cambrici = nutrient-poor substrata), hyperoceanic humid and hyperhumid epiphytic with Hymenophyllum (Hymenophyllion tunbrigensis), Balearic comophyte shaded mostly seed plants (Arenarion balearicae), Mediterranean comophyte with Selaginella denticulata (Selaginello-Anogrammion leptophyllae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Porella platyphylla.

30a. Anomodonto-Polypodietalia O. Bolňs & Vives in O. Bolňs 1957
Characteristic species: Anomodon viticulosus, Asplenium fontanum, Davallia canariensis, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Frullania tamarisci, Isothecium myosuroides, Plagiochila exigua, Plagiochila spinulosa, Polypodium interjectum, Polypodium macaronesicum, Selaginella denticulata, Thuidium tamariscinum.

30.1. Polypodion cambrici Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952 nom. mut. propos.
[Polypodion serrati]
(Polypodienion cambrici Rivas-Martínez suball. nova (30.1a). Bartramio strictae-Polypodienion cambrici (O. Bolňs & Vives in O. Bolňs 1957) Rivas-Martínez suball. nova, stat. nov. (30.1b))
Characteristic species: Bartramia stricta (30.1b), Ctenidium molluscum, Encalypta streptocarpa, Minuartia valentina (30.1b), Moehringia muscosa var. catalaunica, Neckera crispa, Pleurosorus hispanicus (30.1a), Polypodium cambricum, Polypodium xfontqueri, Polypodium xshivasiae, Pterogonium gracile (30.1b), Ramonda myconi (30.1a), Reboulia hemisphaerica (30.1b), Saxifraga cossoniana (30.1a), Saxifraga fragilis var. fragilis, Saxifraga fragilis var. valentina, Saxifraga latepetiolata (30.1a), Sedum cepaea (30.1b), Targionia hypophylla (30.1b), Tortella tortuosa.

30.3. Hymenophyllion tunbrigensis Tüxen in Tüxen & Oberdorfer 1958
Characteristic species: Asplenium anceps, Elaphoglossum semicylindricum, Hymenophyllum maderense, Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, Hymenophyllum wilsonii, Saccogyna viticulosa, Vandenboschia speciosa.

30.4. Arenarion balearicae O. Bolňs & Molinier 1969
Characteristic species: Allium antoni-bolosii, Arenaria balearica, Bellium bellidioides, Carex rorulenta, Crocus cambessedesii, Erodium reichardii, Naufraga balearica, Ranunculus weyleri, Satureja microphylla subsp. filiformis, Satureja rouyana, Sibthorpia africana, Solenopsis balearica.

30.5. Selaginello denticulatae-Anogrammion leptophyllae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Anogramma leptophylla, Saxifraga gemmulosa.

31. Greenovio-Aeonietea Santos 1976

Comophyte and chasmo-comophyte perennial communities organized mostly by succulent Crassulaceae (Aeonium, Aichryson, Monanthes, Greenovia) and also a high number of other endemic chamaephytes, growing on rock surfaces, crevices and walls in Canarian Biogeographic Subregion (Soncho-Aeonietalia) [Canarian infra-thermomediterranean (Soncho-Aeonion), meso-supramediterranean (Greenovion aureae), Madeiran (Sinapidendro-Aeonion glutinosi)]. Canarian.
Characteristic species: Aeonium holochrysum, Aeonium smithii, Aeonium spathulatum, Aeonium urbicum, Aichryson laxum, Aichryson parlatorei, Andryala varia, Arabis caucasica, Ceterach aureum, Ceterach aureum var. parvifolium, Festuca agustini, Greenovia aurea, Habenaria tridactylites, Hypericum reflexum, Monanthes brachycaulon, Monanthes laxiflora, Monanthes muralis, Monanthes pallens, Monanthes polyphylla, Monanthes subcrassicaulis, Pericallis lanata, Rhamnus integrifolia, Senecio palmensis, Silene berthelotiana, Sonchus acaulis, Sonchus gummifer, Tinguarra cervariaefolia, Tolpis lagopoda.

31a. Soncho-Aeonietalia Rivas Goday & Esteve ex Sunding 1972 nom. mut. propos.
[Soncho-Sempervivetalia]
Characteristic species: See class (31).

31.1. Sinapidendro angustifolii-Aeonion glutinosi Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousă, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Aichryson dumosum, Aichryson villosum, Andryala chrithmifolia, Crepis andryaloides, Matthiola maderensis, Micromeria thymoides subsp. cacuminicolae, Musschia aurea, Plantago leiopetala, Saxifraga maderensis, Saxifraga pickeringii, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum fusiforme, Sedum nudum, Sinapidendron angustifolium, Sinapidendron frutescens, Sinapidendron gymnocalyx, Tolpis macrorhiza.

31.2. Soncho-Aeonion Sunding 1972 nom. mut. propos.
[Soncho-Sempervivion]
Characteristic species: Aeonium balsamiferum, Aeonium burchardii, Aeonium canariense, Aeonium castello-paivae, Aeonium cuneatum, Aeonium decorum, Aeonium gomeraense, Aeonium goochiae, Aeonium haworthii, Aeonium hierrense, Aeonium lancerottense, Aeonium manriqueorum, Aeonium mascaense, Aeonium nobile, Aeonium palmense, Aeonium percarneum, Aeonium rubrolineatum, Aeonium saundensii, Aeonium sedifolium, Aeonium subplanum, Aeonium tabulaeforme, Aeonium undulatum, Aeonium valverdense, Aeonium vestitum, Aeonium virgineum, Aeonium viscatum, Aichryson bethencourtianum, Aichryson bollei, Aichryson brevipetalum, Aichryson pachycaulon, Aichryson palmense, Aichryson porphyrogennetos, Aichryson punctatum, Aichryson tortuosum, Crambe arborea, Crambe laevigata, Crambe scaberrima, Greenovia dodrentalis, Hypochoeris oligocephala, Micromeria teneriffae var. teneriffae, Minuartia platyphylla, Monanthes adenoscepes, Monanthes amydros, Monanthes anagensis, Monanthes dasyphylla, Monanthes icterica, Monanthes lowei, Monanthes minima, Monanthes praegeri, Monanthes purpurascens, Monanthes silensis, Parietaria filamentosa, Phyllis viscosa, Polycarpaea carnosa, Salvia broussonetii, Sedum nudum subsp. lancerottense, Sonchus congestus, Sonchus radicatus, Sonchus tectifolius, Sonchus tuberifer, Tolpis crassiuscula, Vieraea laevigata.

31.3. Greenovion aureae Santos ex Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Aeonium simsii, Babcockia platylepis, Greenovia aizoon, Greenovia diplocycla, Silene italica var. pogonocalyx, Tolpis calderae.

32. Phagnalo-Rumicetea indurati (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972) Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa 1973

Dwarf perennial chasmo-comophyte rupestrian communities growing on siliceous, dolomitic and magnesian limestone, earthy broad crevices, walls and loose shifting stones in thermo to oromediterranean and temperate submediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula and North African Maghrebian (Phagnalo-Rumicetalia indurati) [silicicolous Mediterranean West Iberian, Nevadensian and Oroiberian Sorian (Rumici indurati-Dianthion lusitani), shaded silicicolous supramediterranean and supratemperate, Carpetan-Leonese, Orocantabric (Saxifragion fragosoi), silicicolous temperate submediterranean Orensan (Sesamoidion suffruticosae), magnesian limestone Dividing Portuguese (Calendulo lusitanicae-Antirrhinion linkiani), dolomitic Betic (Andryalo-Crambion filiformis), dolomitic Almeriensian (Melico-Phagnalion intermedii)]. Iberian Peninsula and Mauritanian.
Characteristic species: See order (32a).

32a. Phagnalo saxatilis-Rumicetalia indurati Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972
Characteristic species: Centaurea prolongoi, Dianthus broteri subsp. broteri, Rumex induratus, Scrophularia crithmifolia subsp. crithmifolia, Sedum hirsutum subsp. hirsutum, Sedum mucizonia.

32.1. Andryalo ramosissimae-Crambion filiformis (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972) Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa 1973
Characteristic species: Andryala ramosissima, Asperula asperrima, Biscutella megacarpea, Brassica repanda subsp. blancoana, Brassica repanda subsp. latisiliqua, Centaurea bombycina, Centaurea haenseleri, Coincya pseudoerucastrum subsp. coincyoides, Crambe filiformis var. filiformis, Crambe filiformis var. granatensis, Dianthus anticarius subsp. anticarius, Echium albicans, Elaeoselinum asclepium subsp. millefolium, Erysimum myriophyllum, Euphorbia squamigera var. major, Iberis grossii, Linaria amoi, Linaria clementei subsp. clementei, Linaria clementei subsp. reverchonii, Linum suffruticosum subsp. dolomiticum, Reseda almijarensis, Reseda barrelieri subsp. sessiliflora, Reseda phyteuma subsp. rupestris, Silene fernandezii, Teucrium chrysotrichum.

32.2. Melico-Phagnalion intermedii Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972
Characteristic species: Centaurea lainzii, Centaurea malacitana, Euphorbia squamigera var. squamigera, Launaea lanifera, Phagnalon saxatile subsp. intermedium, Sideritis luteola, Teucrium compactum subsp. compactum.

32.3. Rumici indurati-Dianthion lusitani Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa ex Fuente 1986
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum graniticum subsp. graniticum, Antirrhinum rupestris, Arrhenatherum fernandesii, Biscutella bilbilitana, Centaurea monticola subsp. citricolor, Centaurea pinnata, Coincya leptocarpa, Coincya longirostra, Coincya pseudoerucastrum subsp. pseudoerucastrum, Coincya rupestris, Conopodium bunioides subsp. aranii, Conopodium majus subsp. marizianum, Crepis oporinoides, Dianthus crassipes subsp. crassipes, Dianthus crassipes subsp. sereneanus, Dianthus lusitanus, Digitalis mariana subsp. heywoodii, Digitalis mariana subsp. mariana, Digitalis purpurea subsp. toletana, Digitalis thapsi, Erodium mouretti, Erysimum linifolium subsp. lagascae, Festuca duriotagana, Jasione sessiliflora subsp. tomentosa, Scrophularia oxyrhincha, Scrophularia sublyrata, Sedum hirsutum subsp. baeticum, Silene marizii, Silene xmontistellensis, Verbascum rotundifolium subsp. castellanum.

32.4. Saxifragion fragosoi Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986 nom. mut. propos.
[Saxifragion continentalis]
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum meonanthum subsp. ambiguum, Saxifraga fragosoi.

32.5. Calendulo lusitanicae-Antirrhinion linkiani Ladero, C. Valle, M.T. Santos, Amor, Espírito-Santo, Lousă & J.C. Costa 1991
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum linkianum subsp. linkianum, Arabis sadina, Avenula sulcata subsp. occidentalis, Biscutella valentina subsp. lusitanica, Calendula suffruticosa subsp. lusitanica, Coincya pseudoerucastrum subsp. cintrana, Dianthus cintranus subsp. barbatus, Saxifraga cintrana, Silene longicilia.

32.6. Sesamoidion suffruticosae Ortiz & Pulgar 2000
Characteristic species: Coincya pseudoerucastrum subsp. puberula, Sesamoides suffruticosa subsp. suffruticosa.

33. Thlaspietea rotundifolii Br.-Bl. 1948

Loose shifting scree, stone and pebble perennial communities of mountain slopes, moraines and riverine gravel deposits, growing on boreal, temperate and mediterranean bioclimates in the Holarctic territories. Temperate and Mediterranean high calcareous mountains, calc-schist or calcium carbonate rich shifting stones (Thlaspietalia rotundifolii) [oro-cryorotemperate Pyrenean (Iberidion spathulatae), oro-cryorotemperate Orocantabric (Linarion filicaulis), Pyrenean and Orocantabric wet and long snow covered (Saxifragion praetermissae), supratemperate Orocantabric and Castilian Cantabrian (Iberido-Linarion propinquae), supra-oromediterranean Betic (Platycapno-Iberidion lagascanae)]; Temperate and Mediterranean high siliceous mountains and lacking calcium carbonate shifting stones (Androsacetalia alpinae) [oro-cryorotemperate Pyrenean (Senecionion leucophylli), meso-supratemperate Pyrenean (Galeopsion pyrenaicae), Carpetan, Orensan-Sanabriensean, Oroiberian and Orocantabric (Linario saxatilis-Senecionion carpetani), Nevadensian oro-cryoromediterranean (Holcion caespitosi)]; boreal, temperate and mediterranean high mountain deposits of blocks by periglacial congelifraction, glacial erratic, etc., rich in ferns (Polystichetalia lonchitidis) [rich in calcium carbonate (Gymnocarpion robertiani), lacking calcium carbonate (Dryopteridion oreadis)]; thermo to supramediterranean dry and subhumid gravel, pebble and block slopes in Western Mediterranean (Andryaletalia ragusinae) [riverine deposits (Glaucion flavi), Setabensean and Valencian shifting stones and blocks (Scrophularion sciophilae)]; supra and lower orotemperate and submediterranean Alpine, Middle European, Pyrenean, Orocantabric and Oroiberian calcareous or calcium carbonate rich loose scree and riverine gravel deposits (Achnatheretalia calamagrostis) [loose shifting stones (Achnatherion calamagrostis), Pyrenean, Orocantabric and Oroiberian riverine (Calamagrostion pseudophragmitis)]; upper cryorotemperate early snow-free on poor, neutral or rich screes or congelifracted slopes of Alpine and Pyrenean high mountains (Drabetalia hoppeanae) [Pyrenean nival summits (Androsacion ciliatae)]. European Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Aethionema saxatile, Arrhenatherum murcicum, Biscutella valentina subsp. pyrenaica, Biscutella valentina subsp. valentina, Carduus carlinoides subsp. carlinoides, Conopodium pyrenaeum subsp. pumilum, Dracocephalum austriacum, Galeopsis ladanum, Linaria alpina subsp. aciculifolia, Linaria supina, Melica ciliata subsp. ciliata, Myosotis alpina, Ptychotis saxifraga, Rumex scutatus, Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. oppositifolia, Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. paradoxa, Silene vulgaris subsp. glareosa.

33a. Thlaspietalia rotundifolii Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Aethionema thomasianum, Arabis alpina var. alpina, Asperula cynanchica subsp. aristata, Campanula cochlearifolia subsp. cochlearifolia, Crepis pygmaea, Doronicum grandiflorum subsp. braunblanquetii, Euphorbia pyrenaica, Festuca glacialis, Galium pyrenaicum, Pritzelago alpina subsp. alpina, Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. heterocarpus, Reseda glauca, Silene vulgaris subsp. prostrata.

33.1. Iberidion spathulatae Br.-Bl. 1948
Characteristic species: Alyssum cuneifolium subsp. losanum, Borderea pyrenaica, Campanula cochlearifolia subsp. andorrana, Chaenorhinum origanifolium subsp. cotiellae, Doronicum pyrenaicum, Festuca pyrenaica, Iberis spathulata, Linaria alpina subsp. guarensis, Minuartia cerastiifolia, Papaver lapeyrousianum var. endressii, Papaver lapeyrousianum var. lapeyrousianum, Veronica aragonensis, Veronica nummularia subsp. nummularia.

33.2. Platycapno saxicolae-Iberidion lagascanae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963 nom. mut. propos.
[Platycapno-Iberidion granatensis]
Characteristic species: Alyssum gadorense, Bupleurum bourgaei, Crepis granatensis, Galium rosellum, Iberis carnosa subsp. lagascana, Jurinea fontqueri, Nepeta amethystina subsp. laciniata, Platycapnos saxicola, Silene boryi subsp. tejedensis, Vicia glauca subsp. giennensis.

33.3. Saxifragion praetermissae Rivas-Martínez 1977
Characteristic species: Saxifraga praetermissa, Saxifraga xcapitata, Saxifraga xciliaris.

33.4. Linarion filicaulis Rivas-Martínez ex F. Prieto 1983
Characteristic species: Allium palentinum, Iberis carnosa subsp. lereschiana, Linaria filicaulis subsp. filicaulis, Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. favargeri, Salix breviserrata subsp. fontqueri, Spergula viscosa, Veronica mampodrensis, Veronica nummularia subsp. cantabrica.

33.5. Iberido-Linarion propinquae Penas, Puente, M.E. García & L. Herrero ex T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto 1994
Characteristic species: Cochlearia aragonensis subsp. navarrana, Erysimum cantabricum, Erysimum duriaei, Erysimum gorbeanum, Iberis aperta, Linaria filicaulis subsp. faucicola, Linaria propinqua subsp. odoratissima, Linaria propinqua subsp. propinqua, Scrophularia crithmifolia subsp. burundana.

33b. Androsacetalia alpinae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Coincya cheiranthos subsp. montana, Epilobium collinum, Epilobium lanceolatum, Eryngium bourgatii subsp. hispanicum, Murbeckiella pinnatifida, Oxyria digyna, Paronychia polygonifolia, Poa cenisia subsp. fontqueri, Poa laxa, Ranunculus glacialis, Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. parnassifolius, Senecio viscosus.

33.6. Senecionion leucophylli Br.-Bl. 1948
Characteristic species: Cerastium alpinum subsp. squalidum, Cerastium pyrenaicum, Galeopsis pyrenaica var. nana, Galium cometerhizon, Senecio leucophyllus, Vicia argentea, Viola diversifolia, Xatardia scabra.

33.7. Holcion caespitosi Quézel 1953
Characteristic species: Alyssum cuneifolium subsp. corymbosum, Alyssum diffusum subsp. corymbosum, Biscutella glacialis, Carduus carlinoides subsp. hispanicus, Cerastium lanatum subsp. nevadense, Coincya nevadensis subsp. nevadensis, Chaenorhinum glareosum, Holcus caespitosus, Iberis embergeri, Linaria glacialis, Reseda complicata, Senecio malacitanus subsp. frigidus, Senecio nevadensis, Senecio pyrenaicus subsp. granatensis, Viola crassiuscula.

33.8. Linario saxatilis-Senecionion carpetani Rivas-Martínez 1964
Characteristic species: Armeria rivasmartinezii, Arrhenatherum carpetanum, Biscutella gredensis, Coincya nevadensis subsp. orophila, Coincya setigera, Conopodium bunioides subsp. butinioides, Digitalis purpurea subsp. carpetana, Doronicum kuepferi, Galeopsis carpetana, Leontodon hispidus subsp. bourgaeanus, Linaria saxatilis subsp. glabrescens, Primula pedemontana subsp. iberica, Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. cabrerensis, Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. muniellensis, Reseda gredensis, Rumex suffruticosus, Santolina oblongifolia, Scrophularia bourgeana, Senecio pyrenaicus subsp. carpetanus, Silene foetida subsp. foetida, Silene foetida subsp. gayana, Solidago virgaurea subsp. fallit-tirones, Trisetum hispidum.

33.9. Galeopsion pyrenaicae Rivas-Martínez 1977
Characteristic species: Biscutella valentina subsp. flexuosa, Galeopsis pyrenaica var. pyrenaica, Galeopsis segetum var. aranensis, Galeopsis segetum var. brevifolia, Linaria repens var. monspessulana.

33c. Polystichetalia lonchitidis Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Petasites paradoxus, Phegopteris connectilis, Polystichum lonchitis, Polystichum xillyricum, Senecio pyrenaicus subsp. pyrenaicus.

33.10. Gymnocarpion robertiani F. Casas 1970
Characteristic species: Cystopteris montana, Dryopteris submontana, Gymnocarpium robertianum.

33.11Dryopteridion oreadis Rivas-Martínez 1977 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
[Dryopteridion abbreviatae]
Characteristic species: Cryptogramma crispa, Dryopteris affinis subsp. cambrensis, Dryopteris expansa, Dryopteris oreades, Dryopteris tyrrhena, Dryopteris xmantoniae.

33d. Andryaletalia ragusinae Rivas Goday ex Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972
Characteristic species: Andryala ragusina, Lactuca chondrilliflora, Lactuca tenerrima, Lactuca viminea, Scrophularia canina subsp. canina, Silene inaperta subsp inaperta.

33.12. Glaucion flavi Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
Characteristic species: Biscutella valentina subsp. mediterranea, Euphorbia aragonensis subsp. aragonensis, Euphorbia aragonensis subsp. bolosii, Iberis carnosa subsp. nafarroana, Nepeta amethystina subsp. amethystina.

33.13. Scrophularion sciophilae O. Bolňs 1957
Characteristic species: Conopodium thalictrifolium, Iberis hegelmaieri, Reseda paui, Scrophularia sciophila.

33e. Achnatheretalia calamagrostis Oberdorfer & Seibert in Oberdorfer 1977 nom. mut. propos.
[Stipetalia calamagrostis]
Characteristic species: Achnatherum calamagrostis, Biscutella cichoriifolia, Cynoglossum germanicum, Galeopsis angustifolia, Iberis carnosa subsp. carnosa, Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum, Ligusticum lucidum, Nepeta nepetella, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria var. hirundinaria.

33.14. Achnatherion calamagrostis Jenny in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nčgre 1952 nom. mut. propos.
[Stipion calamagrostis]
Characteristic species: Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. guarensis, Aquilegia viscosa subsp. montsicciana, Cirsium glabrum, Cochlearia aragonensis subsp. aragonensis, Linaria badalii, Linaria bubanii, Odontites pyrenaeus, Picris hieracioides subsp. rielii, Scrophularia canina subsp. hoppii.

33.15. Calamagrostion pseudophragmitis Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Erucastrum nasturtifolium subsp. sudrei, Laserpitium gallicum.

33f. Drabetalia hoppeanae Zollitsch in Oberdorfer, Görs, Korneck, Lohmeyer, Müller, Philippi & Seibert 1967
Characteristic species: Draba flandnizensis, Festuca alpina subsp. riverae.

33.16Androsacion ciliatae Rivas-Martínez 1988
Characteristic species: Androsace ciliata, Erigeron uniflorus subsp. subacaulis, Festuca borderei, Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga iratiana, Trisetum spicatum subsp. ovatipaniculatum.