CLIWOC Databases

CLIWOC release 1.0

(20 November 2003)


This is the official first release of CLIWOC. Because there are much more data to be added to the database, another release will follow in the spring of 2004. In this release an ASCII version of the CLIWOC database is presented in IMMA format (see below), together with an Access database with all the available information in complete records. As the user may notice, there are several fields in the IMMA-records that are not used. Since a lot of work has been done to get this release working properly, we had to decide to postpone presenting additional information in this format. However, the complete records will be on this same CD-ROM in Microsoft Access format.

ASCII filename: cliwoc1.0.txt

The file is in ASCII format and contains 181,027 records of 110 characters long (including CR/LF). The records are built according to the proposed format, given in the IMMA document, updated 22 July 2003 (www.cdc.noaa.gov/coads/e-doc/imma/imma.pdf). The idea behind this format is that the user can easily start with the data, without having to concern about unit conversions. It is all expressed in present day SI-units (e.g. UTC, Celsius, nautical miles, degrees, m/s and hPa).

 

In the laboring process of keying the data from different sources, duplicate records may have been keyed when more than one source was available from the same voyage. Usually these records are not exact copies, but are more or less complementary to each other. The identification of the duplicates is handled in the ShipLogbookID file (shiplogbookid1.0.txt). If the user wants to avoid duplicates, he/she has to ignore those ID’s that have the Duplicate-field in the ShipLogbookID file set to other values than 0.

 

In the following table the record in the file cliwoc1.0.txt is explained.

 

Variable

Start

End

Format

Description

YR

1

4

A4

Year (UTC)

MO

5

6

A2

Month (UTC)

DY

7

8

A2

Day (UTC)

HR

9

12

A4

Hour (UTC)

LAT

13

17

A5

Latitude in hundredths of a degree; North of the equator is positive, South of the equator is negative

LON

18

23

A6

Longitude in hundredths of a degree; convention: 0-359.99, East of Greenwich

IM

24

25

A2

IMMA version; 0 = this prototype version

ATTC

26

26

A1

Attachment Count; presently still 0

TI

27

27

A1

Time indicator; only 0 (= nearest whole hour)

LI

28

28

A1

Latitude/longitude indicator; for this moment still 6 (= other)

DS

29

29

A1

Not in use

VS

30

30

A1

Not in use

NID

31

32

A2

Not in use

II

33

34

A2

ID indicator; all 10 (= composite information from early ship data).

ID

35

43

A9

Identification; In this release a number is given that identifies the ship and the ships’ logbook.

With this number you can look up this information in the file: shiplogbookid1.0.txt

C1

44

45

A2

Country code; gives the nationality of the ship that made the observation:

ES = Spain

FR = France

NL = The Netherlands

UK = United Kingdom

DI

46

46

A1

Not in use

D

47

49

A3

Wind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable.

WI

50

50

A1

Wind speed indicator; all reported wind forces are more or less given in “Beaufort” classes (WI = 5); Much work still has to be done on the translation from the descriptive terms to a reduced set of wind forces.

W

51

53

A3

Wind speed; given in tenths of a meter per second. From the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations, a first division into “Beaufort” classes resulted in the m/s given here. Most of the values are the midpoints of each Beaufort class, cf. WMO-1100. In those cases that more information was available, other values may have been used.

Bft 0: 0-0.2 m/s

Bft 1: 0.3-1.5 m/s

Bft 2: 1.6-3.3 m/s

Bft 3: 3.4-5.4 m/s

Bft 4: 5.5-7.9 m/s

Bft 5: 8.0-10.7 m/s

Bft 6: 10.8-13.8 m/s

Bft 7: 13.9-17.1 m/s

Bft 8 17.2-20.7 m/s

Bft 9: 20.8-24.4 m/s

Bft 10: 24.5-28.4 m/s

Bft 11: 28.5-32.6 m/s

Bft 12: >32.6 m/s

VI

54

54

A1

Not in use

VV

55

56

A2

Not in use

WW

57

58

A2

Not in use

W1

59

59

A1

Not in use

SLP

60

64

A5

Sea level pressure in tenths of hPa. Still under study; No temperature correction was applied and for this moment the following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa:

2.54 cm in an inch

13.596 specific gravity of mercury

980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude

A

65

65

A1

Not in use

PPP

66

68

A3

Not in use

IT

69

69

A1

Indicator for air temperatures, originating from:

3 = mixed precision Celsius

7 = mixed precision Fahrenheit

9 = mixed precision Réaumur

AT

70

73

A4

Air temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius

WBTI

74

74

A1

Not in use

WBT

75

78

A4

Not in use

DPTI

79

79

A1

Not in use

DPT

80

83

A4

Not in use

SI

84

85

A2

Method by which SST was taken;

10 = “implied” bucket

SST

86

89

A4

Sea surface temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius

N

90

90

A1

Not in use

NH

91

91

A1

Not in use

CL

92

92

A1

Not in use

HI

93

93

A1

Not in use

H

94

94

A1

Not in use

CM

95

95

A1

Not in use

CH

96

96

A1

Not in use

WD

97

98

A2

Not in use

WP

99

100

A2

Not in use

WH

101

102

A2

Not in use

SD

103

104

A2

Not in use

SP

105

106

A2

Not in use

SH

107

108

A2

Not in use

 

ASCII filename: shiplogbookid1.0.txt

The file is in ASCII format and contains 1,372 records of 67 characters long (including CR/LF).

 

In the following table the record is explained.

 

Variable

Start

End

Format

Description

ID

1

4

A4

Identification number of the Ship and Logbook

Shipname

5

34

A30

Name of the ship that made the observation

LogbookID

35

64

A30

Logbook identification number

Duplicate

65

65

A1

Duplicate or original; 0=original, 1=first duplicate, 2=second duplicate, etc.

 

Access97 filename: 97CLIWOC Release 1.0.mdb

Access2000 filename: CLIWOC Release 1.0.mdb

The use of Access by the user is assumed to be average. In this release no attempt was made to come up with a user-friendly interface. Both Access versions have the same layout, but the restriction is that you cannot use the Access2000 version in an Access97 environment!

 

The files contain 12 different tables. The main table is named CLIWOC, which contains the keyed data. To be able to use some of the elements in this table, it may be necessary to consult one or more of the additional tables.

 

CLIWOC release 1.0 table names

Contents

CLIWOC

220,738 records

Geodata

1,534 records

Lookup_ES_WindDirection

108 records

Lookup_ES_WindForce

798 records

Lookup_FR_WindDirection

117 records

Lookup_FR_WindForce

246 records

Lookup_NL_WindDirection

121 records

Lookup_NL_WindForce

1,098 records

Lookup_UK_WindDirection

103 records

Lookup_UK_WindForce

957 records

Magnetic_Declinations

222,915 records

ShipLogbookID

1,372 records

 

 

CLIWOC table

In the following table the record of the CLIWOC-table is explained. Where necessary, pointers to other tables are given. Since this release is not the final one, be cautious using the information as is. If you want to be sure, the ASCII version in IMMA-format is the best you can use. That part had the best QC, so far.

 

Table name: CLIWOC

Field name

Field description

RecID

Automatically generated record number

Duplicate

Indicator for duplicate records. 0=original record, 1=1st duplicate, 2=2nd duplicate, etc. (see table ShipLogbookID)

InstAbbr

Abbreviation of the Institute where the original data is stored

InstName

Name of the Institute where the original data is stored

InstPlace

Place of the Institute where the original data is stored

InstLand

Country of the Institute where the original data is stored

LogbookIdent

Identification of the logbook that holds the underlying data; e.g. a number or code (see table ShipLogbookID)

LogbookLanguage

Language used in the logbook

DASnumber

Dutch Asiatic Shipping Number

VoyageFrom

Ship departed from (see table Geodata)

VoyageTo

Ship sailed to (see table Geodata)

ShipName

Name of the ship (see table ShipLogbookID)

ShipType

Type of ship; e.g. schooner, barque, frigate

Company

Company which owns or manages the ship

OtherShipInformation

Additional ship information that was found in the logbook

Nationality

Nationality of ship

Name1

Name of principal observer

Rank1

Full rank of principal observer

Name2

Name of second observer

Rank2

Full rank of second observer

Name3

Name of third observer

Rank3

Full rank of third observer

ZeroMeridian

Meridian that is used as the reference for the ships' longitude; This longitude is given in the table Geodata

DistUnits

Units of distances, given in the logbook

DistToLandmarkUnits

Units of distances to landmarks, given in the logbook

DistTravelledUnits

Units of distances sailed, given in the logbook

LongitudeUnits

Longitudes used: "180 degrees"=180E-180W, "360 degrees"= 0-360E

UnitsOfMeasurement

Other units used for measurements

Calendar

Calendar used in original logbook: 1=Julian; 2=Gregorian

Year

Year of the observation from logbook

Month

Month of the observation from logbook

Day

Day of the observation from logbook

DayOfTheWeek

Possible values Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday

TimeOB

Time of the observation, usually 12:00 hours (noon)

UTC

DTG expressed in UTC (if possible) corrected for longitude and calendar

CMG

Course made good; Average course during the past 24 hours

ShipSpeed

Ships' speed; Average speed during the past 24 hours

Distance

Distance travelled during last 24 hours

DrLatDeg

Dead reckoning degrees latitude

DrLatMin

Dead reckoning minutes latitude

DrLatSec

Dead reckoning seconds latitude

DrLatHem

Dead reckoning hemisphere (N/S)

DrLongDeg

Dead reckoning degrees longitude

DrLongMin

Dead reckoning minutes longitude

DrLongSec

Dead reckoning seconds longitude

DrLongHem

Dead reckoning hemisphere (E/W)

LatDeg

True degrees latitude

LatMin

True minutes latitude

LatSec

True seconds latitude

LatHem

True Hemisphere (N/S)

LongDeg

True degrees longitude

LongMin

True minutes longitude

LongSec

True seconds longitude

LongHem

True Hemisphere (E/W)

Lat3

Corrected and converted Decimal Latitude

Lon3

Corrected and converted Decimal Longitude

LatInd

Position Indicator, explains what was the origin of the given Decimal Latitude; 1=Dead Reckoning; 2=True; 3=interpolated; 4=transposed position (best fit); 5=geographical position looked up; 6=missing

LonInd

Position Indicator, explains what was the origin of the given Decimal Longitude; 1=Dead Reckoning; 2=True; 3=interpolated; 4=transposed position (best fit); 5=geographical position looked up; 6=missing

PosCoastal

True if position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)

EncName

Name of ship that was encountered or is in company

EncNat

Nationality of ship that was encountered or sails in company

EncRem

Remarks on encounter

Anchored

ship at anchor

AnchorPlace

Ship at anchor or moored in port or anchored on the port's roads (see table Geodata)

LMname1

Name of first landmark of which a bearing was recorded (see table Geodata)

LMdirection1

Bearing of the first landmark

LMdistance1

Distance to the first landmark

LMname2

Name of second landmark of which a bearing was recorded (see table Geodata)

LMdirection2

Bearing of the second landmark

LMdistance2

Distance to the second landmark

LMname3

Name of third landmark of which a bearing was recorded (see table Geodata)

LMdirection3

Bearing of the third landmark

LMdistance3

Distance to the third landmark

WindDirection

Wind direction at the time of observation (TimeOB).

Remark. 1: Generally the wind directions are not reported in numbers, but in points of the compass, instead. Since four languages were used in this project, every language has its own lookup table to convert the points of the compass to degrees. See tables Lookup_ES_WindDirection, Lookup_FR_WindDirection, Lookup_NL_WindDirection and Lookup_UK_WindDirection.

Remark. 2: It is assumed that the wind directions are reported relative to the magnetic north direction. A correction has to be applied to derive a correct direction relative to the true north direction. An approach of this correction may be found in the table Magnetic_Declinations.

AllWindDirections

All reported wind directions on this day;

See remarks under WindDirection.

WindForce

Wind force reported during the time of observation (TimeOB).

Remark: Most of the reported wind forces are expressed in a special vocabulary. Again the four different languages in this project caused the vocabularies to be separated. Lookup tables are given in this database under the names Lookup_ES_WindForce, Lookup_FR_WindForce, Lookup_NL_WindForce and Lookup_UK_WindForce. Additionally to this database, a multilingual dictionary is available in print and in PDF format on this CD-ROM.

WindForceScale

If given the number of the wind force

AllWindForces

All reported wind forces on this day. See remarks under WindForce

Weather

Weather description

ShapeClouds

Shape of the clouds

DirClouds

Directions of the clouds

Clearness

Clearness/Brightness of the sky

PrecipitationDescriptor

Description of the precipitation

CloudFrac

Clouded part of the sky

Gusts

Wind gusts

Rain

Rain

Fog

Fog

Snow

Snow

Thunder

Thunder

Hail

Hail

SeaIce

Sea-ice

SSTReading

Reading of the sea surface thermometer

SSTReadingUnits

Units of the sea surface thermometer reading

StateSea

State of the sea

CurrentDir

Direction of the current

CurrentSpeed

Speed of the current

TairReading

Reading of the (outside) air thermometer

AirThermReadingUnits

Units of the (outside) air thermometer reading

BaroReading

Reading of the air pressure

AirPressureReadingUnits

Units of the reading of the air pressure

BarometerType

Barometer type

BarTempReading

Reading of the attached thermometer

BarTempReadingUnits

Units of the reading of the attached thermometer

PumpWater

Amount of water reported at the pump

WaterAtThePumpUnits

Units of the amount of water reported at the pump

LifeOnBoard

Tagged if a description of the life on board the ship is written in the logbook on this day

LifeOnBoardMemo

Description of the life on board the ship that is written in the logbook on this day

Cargo

Tagged if a description of the cargo on board the ship is written in the logbook on this day

CargoMemo

Description of the cargo on board the ship that is written in the logbook on this day

ShipAndRig

Tagged if a description of the ship and/or rig on board the ship is written in the logbook on this day

ShipAndRigMemo

Description of the ship and/or rig on board the ship that is written in the logbook on this day

Biology

Tagged if a description of some biological information on board or near the ship is written in the logbook on this day

BiologyMemo

Description of some biological information on board or near the ship that was written in the logbook on this day

WarsAndFights

Tagged if a description of wars and/or fights in which the ship was involved, is written in the logbook on this day

WarsAndFightsMemo

Description of wars and/or fights in which the ship was involved, that was written in the logbook on this day

Illustrations

Tagged if an illustration was given in the logbook on this day

TrivialCorrection

Tagged if one or more trivial corrections were applied in this record

OtherRem

Other remarks

 

 

Geodata table

In the following table the outline of the records in the Geodata table is given. This table is initially used to find the longitude of the zero-meridian that was used in the logbooks. Later this table became a lookup table for many of the used geographical names, e.g. anchor places, names of landmarks, ports sailed to and from, etc..

 

Table name: Geodata

Field name

Description

ID

Record number

VEcode

Codes used by A.R.T. Jonkers in his program “Voyage Editor”; neither the code nor the program is used in CLIWOC

Place

Original name (and spelling) of the place found in the logbook. Regularly more than one spelling were used for the same place. We decided to keep the original spelling in tact, as much as possible.

DecLatitude

Latitude in decimal degrees; North is positive, South is negative

DecLongitude

Longitude in decimal degrees; East is positive, West is negative

Source

Name of the source where the position of the place was found

ModernName

Modern English name of the place

Alternative Name

Sometimes another name is common as well

Ocean

The name of the ocean where the place may be found

Spanish

Place name in Spanish

Dutch

Place name in Dutch

French

Place name in French

Notes

Additional notes

 

Lookup tables wind direction

In this lookup table the wind directions from the logbooks, generally expressed in points of the compass, is translated/converted, where possible, in whole degrees.

 

Table name: Lookup_xx_WindDirection (xx = ES, FR, NL or UK)

Field name

Description

ID

Record number

WindDirection

Wind direction expression, found in the CLIWOC table

ProbWindDD

Wind direction in degrees;

0=no wind,

1-360=direction (e.g. 90: wind coming from the East, 180: wind from the South, 270: wind from the West and 360: wind from the North),

500=missing or unknown direction,

999=variable.

 

Lookup tables wind force

In the lookup table for wind forces, the wind force terms, used in the logbooks, is converted/translated in modern day equivalents, e.g. Beaufort and m/s. Additionally to this table in the CLIWOC database, a multilingual dictionary is available in print and in PDF format on this CD-ROM.

 

Table name: Lookup_xx_WindForce (xx = ES, FR, NL or UK)

Field name

Description

ID

Record number

WindForce

Wind force expression, found in the CLIWOC table

CLIWOC Class

Wind force according to a coarse scale (originally named KoKo-scale) where:

1 = 0-1 Beaufort

2 = 2-4 Beaufort

3 = 5-7 Beaufort

4 = > 7 Beaufort

8 = Other

9 = Missing value

Beaufort

Beaufort class, cf. WMO-1100.

0: 0-0.2 m/s

1: 0.3-1.5 m/s

2: 1.6-3.3 m/s

3: 3.4-5.4 m/s

4: 5.5-7.9 m/s

5: 8.0-10.7 m/s

6: 10.8-13.8 m/s

7: 13.9-17.1 m/s

8 17.2-20.7 m/s

9: 20.8-24.4 m/s

10: 24.5-28.4 m/s

11: 28.5-32.6 m/s

12: >32.6 m/s

mps

Generally the midpoints of the Beaufort-classes were used. There where more information was available other values may have been used.

 

Magnetic declination table

It is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships’ officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefor the wind direction has to be corrected. In the following table the magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. To find the correction, look it up with a rounded (to 5 whole degrees) position and the year of observation. The found number has to be added to the wind direction.

 

Table name: MagneticDeclination

Field name

Description

ID

Record number

Lat

Latitude in decimal degrees; North is positive, South is negative

Lon

Longitude in decimal degrees; East is positive, West is negative

Year

Year

Declination

Declination in degrees

 

Ship Logbook Identification table

This table is used to identify the source of the observation. On ship voyages there were generally more than one logbook kept by the captain and the officers. In some occasions it seemed appropriate to show both entries as a separate observation, especially where they seemed to be complementary. In other cases abstract (or extract) logbooks were made from the original ones. We decided to keep the abstract and the originals in the database for further study.

 

Table name: ShipLogbookID

Field name

Description

ID

Record number

ShipName

Name of the ship

LogbookIdent

Identification code of the original ships’ logbook

Duplicate

Code, indicating whether the logbook was the original or a duplicate/extract; 0=original, 1=1st duplicate, 2=2nd duplicate, etc..

 


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