New records of Atlantic hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources

Ricardo Garcia-Herrera, Luis Gimeno, Pedro Ribera and Emiliano Hernandez

Spanish historical documents from the Archivo General de Indias (AGI) -General Archive of the Indies- have been used to identify Caribbean hurricanes and storms from the 16th to the 19th centuries. These sources provide previously unrecorded information on hurricanes useful to complete preexisting chronologies and cyclone tracks. Our work adds 70 hurricanes not previously identified which can now be freely accesible from the web. The results suggest that the 17th century may have been less active than the 16th and 18th centuries, with the most active period occurring between 1766 and 1780. Additionally, the study also is the first compilation of information about storms (different from hurricanes) in the Caribbean basin.

(Accepted in: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres)

Year Month Date(s) Type of source Main Affected Area(s) Landfall point(s)
1520     A.G.I. JUSTICIA 14, N. 3 REP. DOMINICANA  
1525     A.G.I. JUSTICIA 1005, N.1, R. 2 HONDURAS TRIUNFO DE LA CRUZ
1527     A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 421, L.12, IM.69 / A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 421, L.12, IM.139-140 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SANTO DOMINGO
1529 JULY 28 - 29 A.G.I. PATRONATO 175,R. 18, N. 3 PUERTO RICO SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO
1545     A.G.I. PANAMÁ 235, L.8, IM.270-271 CUBA HAVANA
1546     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 868, L.2. F 313 V-314 V DOMINICAN REPUBLIC  
1546   DAY OF SAN BARTOLOMÉ A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 164, N.31 PUERTO RICO SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO
1552 AUGUST 28 - 29 A.G.I. JUSTICIA 1029, N. 7, R. 1 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SANTO DOMINGO
1552 SEPTEMBER 2 - 4 A.G.I. PATRONATO 181,R.25 MÉXICO VERACRUZ
  SEPTEMBER 3 - 6 1566 A.G.I. PATRONATO 257, N.1, G.3, R.4, IM.23 FLORIDA (37,5ºN)
1569 SEPTEMBER   A.G.I. PATRONATO 254, N. 3, G. 3, R. 4 BAHAMAS BAHAMAS CHANNEL
1571 OCTOBER 18 - 21 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 4803, DOC. S/N. CUBA - JAMAICA  
1576     A.G.I. PATRONATO 257, N.1, G.4, R.4 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC MONTECRISTI
1577 AUGUST- SEPTEMBER   A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5101 CUBA - JAMAICA  
1577 SEPTEMBER - OCTOBER 26 – 8 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 717, N.9   27 – 38º N
1578     A.G.I. MÉXICO 72, R.4, N.51 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC OCOA
1578 OCTOBER   A.G.I. PATRONATO 255, N. 2, G. 1, R. 5 CUBA - JAMAICA CUBA - JAMAICA
1579     A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 2676, DOC. S/N. JAMAICA JAMAICA
1579 SEPTEMBER 13 A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 739, N.217, DOC.3. BERMUDAS 33 º. 30 LEAGUES(1) FROM BERMUDA.
1579 SEPTEMBER 26 A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 1095, R.25, N.299 / A.G.I INDIFERENTE 1095, R.25, N.304 / A.G.I INDIFERENTE 1095, R.31, N.370 BERMUDAS BERMUDA
1583 AUGUST 19 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 80, N. 79 BIS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SANTO DOMINGO
1588 NOVEMBER 4 – 6 A.G.I. PATRONATO 196,R.21 / A.G.I. SANTA FE 62, N.46 COLOMBIA CARTAGENA DE INDIAS
1588 SEPTEMBER 20 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 127, N.66 CUBA HAVANA
1589 SEPTEMBER 12 A.G.I. PATRONATO 254, N. 3, G. 3, R. 4 BAHAMAS BAHAMAS CHANNEL
1589     A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 730 A,N.5 FLORIDA CAPE CAÑAVERAL & SANTA ELENA
1589 AUGUST 7 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5108 LEEWAY ISLANDS (LESSER ANTILLES)  
1591 SEPTEMBER 21 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 169, FOL. 390 PUERTO RICO  
1591 SEPTEMBER   A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 127, N.62 FLORIDA LAS TORTUGAS
1591 SEPTEMBER 24 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5109 CUBA  
1594     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 24, N.46 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SANTO DOMINGO
1594     DAY OF SAN LUCAS A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 127, N.202 CUBA HAVANA
1595 AUGUST 29 – 30 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 99, R. 20, N. 190 CUBA HAVANA
1599 SEPTEMBER 22 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 229, fol.130r-130v / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 229, fol.136r / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 229, fol.151r. FLORIDA SAN AGUSTÍN DE LA FLORIDA
1605 SEPTEMBER 29 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 224, R.6, N.52, DOC.1 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 224, R.6, N.52, DOC.4. CUBA SABANA PORT
1608 SEPTEMBER 3 A.G.I. MÉXICO 351, DOC. S/N MÉXICO VERACRUZ
1622 SEPTEMBER 9 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5101 / A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 4806, DOC. 34 BERMUDA 31º N - 150 LEAGUES(1) FROM BERMUDA
1625 AUGUST 11 – 12 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 101, R.3, N.33 BAHAMAS BAHAMAS CHANNEL
1628     A.G.I. MÉXICO 242 A, N.65 MÉXICO SANTA MARÍA DE CIZAL (MÉRIDA)
1643 AUGUST 20 – 21 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5101 ANTIGUA & BARBUDA  
1646 OCTOBER 17 A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 5101 CUBA LOS ÓRGANOS (PINAR DEL RÍO)
1664 SEPTEMBER   A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 104, R.6, N.55 CUBA HAVANA
1666     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 543, fol.52r-53v / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 543, fol.54r-56r / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 543, fol.57r-60v. / A.G.I. PUERTO RICO SAN JUAN
1671 SEPTEMBER 22 – 25 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2489, DOC. S/N MÉXICO ENSENADA MEXICANA
1672 SEPTEMBER   A.G.I. MÉXICO 2489, DOC. S/N VENEZUELA > MÉXICO CARACAS > SAN JUAN DE ULÚA
1675 SEPTEMBER 15 – 22 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2489, DOC. S/N CUBA - MÉXICO LA HABANA - CAMPECHE
1678 SEPTEMBER 2 – 13 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2489, DOC. S/N MÉXICO SAN JUAN DE ULÚA
1678 SEPTEMBER 14 – 19 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2489, DOC. S/N MÉXICO SAN JUAN DE ULÚA
1683 OCTOBER 22 A.G.I. SANTA FE 259, FOLS. 207- 213 VENEZUELA CURAZAO
1698 DECEMBER 12 A.G.I. MÉXICO 618, DOC.10 FLORIDA BAHÍA SANTA MARÍA DE GALVE (PENSACOLA)
1715 AUGUST 26 A.G.I. MEXICO 856, DOC. S/N MÉXICO TAMPICO
1729     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 546, DOC.S/N. PUERTO RICO SAN GERMÁN (MAYAGÜEZ)
1740 JULY 11 – 13 A.G.I. SANTA FE 572 PUERTO RICO SAN TOMÁS ISLAND - SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO
1750 AUGUST   A.G.I. CONTRATACIÓN 2527, N. 5 BAHAMAS BAHAMA CHANNEL
1760 SEPTEMBER 7 – 8 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2982, DOC. S/N MÉXICO VERACRUZ
1766 SEPTEMBER (9) 8 AN MAR / COTE - 4/JJ/23    
1766 OCTOBER 29 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2982, DOC. S/N CUBA PUERTA DE LA PUNTA (HAVANA)
1766 JULY 17 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2973, DOC. S/N BAHAMAS BAHAMAS CHANNEL
1771 NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 30 – 1 A.G.I. MÉXICO 2973, DOC. S/N MÉXICO VERACRUZ
1773 SEPTEMBER 13 – 14 A.G.I. SANTA FE 576 COLOMBIA RIOHACHA - CARTAGENA DE INDIAS
1775 AUGUST 28 – 29 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 1211, N.972 CUBA HAVANA
1777 OCTOBER - NOVEMBER 28 – 4 A.G.I. CUBA 1230, Fols. 283r- 284 CUBA SANTIAGO DE CUBA
1780 OCTOBER 17 – 21 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 1657, N.49 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 1657, N.50 CUBA & FLORIDA HAVANA- PANZACOLA
1789 AUGUST 18 A.G.I. CUBA 1232, N.202 / CUBA, 1232, N.204. LOUSIANA NEW ORLEANS
1791 OCTOBER 25 A.G.I. INDIFERENTE 1559, N.46 PUERTO RICO  
1793     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2612, N.16 LOUSIANA BONET CARÉ (NEW ORLEANS)
1794 AUGUST 10 – 11 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2563, N.431 / SANTO DOMINGO 2606, N.122 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2612, N.6 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2612, N.8 LOUISIANA MISSISSIPI - BATÓN ROUGE & FUERTE DE PLACAMINAS (NEW ORLEANS)
1794 AUGUST 9 – 10 DOC.IMPRESO CUBA HAVANA
1795 JULY 20 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2564, N.543 LOUISIANA FUERTE DE PLACAMINAS - REDUCTO BORBÓN (NEW ORLEANS)
1796 AUGUST 26 – 27 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2613, N.40 LOUISIANA SAN FELIPE DE PLACAMINAS (NEW ORLEANS)
1801 AUGUST 15 – 16 A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2618, N.20 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2618, N.21 / A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2618, N.24 ALABAMA PANZACOLA (MOBILE)
1808     A.G.I. SANTO DOMINGO 2325, N. 122 PUERTO RICO  
1811 OCTOBER 11 A.G.I. CUBA 447, N. 76 FLORIDA PENSACOLA BAY
1815 AUGUST 30 A.H.N. ULTRAMAR 1067,Exp.56 PUERTO RICO  
1815 SEPTEMBER 15 A.H.N. ULTRAMAR 1067,Exp.56 PUERTO RICO  
1895 OCTOBER 20 – 21 A.A.B SECC.EXPEDICIONES 408.2 CUBA SAGUA & SIERRA MORENA (SANTA CLARA) - MATANZAS - SANTA CLARA
(1) A league is 1/20 of a meridian degree, i.e.: 5555m